cut and chop

Cut  -iža- or -ya

-iža-

This is the usual form of the verb root

tutaǫtarižaˀ           They had cut across where there is a lake.

[too-tah-on-tah-ree-zhah-ah]

t-                      dualic

-u-                    factual

-t-                     cislocative

-a-                    factual

-ǫtar-                noun root – lake

-iža-                 verb root – cut

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

 

ahanǫˀmažaˀkǫh    He cut her back many times.

[ah-hah-nonon-mah-zhah-ah-konh]

a-                     factual

-ha-                  masculine singular agent + feminine-zoic singular patient – he – her

-nǫˀma-            noun root – back

-žaˀ-                 verb root – cut

-kǫ-                  distributive root suffix

-h                     punctual aspect

 

tehstihtižaˀ            You two will cut across, cross a field.

[teh-steeh-tee-zhah-ah]

t-                      dualic

-eh-                  future

-st-                   2nd person dual agent – you two

-iht-                  noun root – field

-iža-                 verb root – cut

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

 

ahaˀtenǫmętsižaˀ    He cut across the country.

[ah-hah-ah-te-non-men-tsee=zhah-ah]

a-                     factual

-h-                    masculine agent – he

-aˀte-                semi-reflexive

-nǫmęts-          noun root -country

-iža-                 verb root – cut

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

 

ahundaˀarižaˀ         He cut off his horn.

[ah-hoon-dah-ah-ree-zhah-ah]

a-                     factual

-hu-                  masculine singular agent + masculine singular patient – he – his

-ndaˀar-            noun root – horn

-iža-                 verb root – cut

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

 

-ya-

This form is usually used after certain noun roots, particularly those ending with -t-..

 

aharǫnkyaˀ He cut a tree (down).

[ah-hah-ron-kyah-ah]

a-         factual

-ha-      masculine singular – he

-rǫnk-  noun root – tree (usually -rǫnt-)

-ya-      verb root – cut

-ˀ          punctual aspect

 

tuhnǫˀkyaˀkǫh       He cut both of his legs off.

[too-h-non-on-kyah-ah-konh]

t-          dualic

-[h]u-   masculine singular agent + masculine singular patient – he – his

-hnǫˀk- noun root – leg (usually -hnǫˀt-)

-yaˀ-     verb root – cut

-kǫ-      dislocative root suffix

-h         stative aspect

 

Chop ˀru-

This verb seems not to incorporate any noun roots.  If a tree is chopped down, the verb root for cutting is used.  In the first example, the first example for -ya- follows it.

 

haˀruˀ           He chopped, is chopping it.

[hah-ah-roo-oo]

ha-       masculine singular agent – he

-ˀru-     verb root – chop

-ˀ          stative aspect

 

aˀyeˀruˀ        I chopped it.

[ah-ah-yeh-eh-roo-oo]

aˀ-        factual

-ye-      1st person singular agent – I

-ˀru-     verb root – chop

-ˀ          punctual aspect

 

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