Health Matters in the Wyandot Language

Health Matters in the Wyandot Language

To hurt, injure: -astera-

Question: Where does it hurt? Where are you injured?

Anęę            d’                etisasteray

[an-en-en]

Where is it        that which

etisasteray             It is where you are injured, hurt.

[eh-tee-sah-steh-rah-eey]

eti-                   cislocative ‘where’

-sa-                  2nd person patient, you (s)

-astera-           verb root ‘to  hurt, to injure,’

-y                     stative aspect

Tuh    ekyayasteray                    de      ayežušaˀye  My elbow is injured; it hurts.

[tooh]                                       [deh]

There   it is where I am injured  the        on my elbow

ekyasteray              It is where I am injured

[eh-kyah-steh-rah-ee]

ek-                   cislocative ‘where’

-ay-                  1st person patient, ‘I’

-astera-           verb root ‘to hurt, injure’

-y                     stative aspect

ayežušaˀye             at, on my elbow

[ah-yeh-zhoo-shah-ah-yeh]

aye-                 1st person singular patient ‘my’

žuš-                noun root ‘elbow’

-aˀye                external locative noun suffix ‘at, on’

Tuh    ekyasteray                       de      ayehšigyuˀta ˀye.

There   it is where I am injured  the        on my knee

My knee is where I am injured, where I hurt.

ayehšigyuˀta ˀye     my knee

[ah-yeh-shee-gyoo-oo-tah-ah-yeh]

aye-                 1st person patient ‘my’

-hšigyuˀt-         noun root, ‘knee’

-aˀye                external locative noun suffix, ‘at, on’

To be Sick/in pain: -nǫma-[1]

huhšiˀtanǫmaš        His foot repeatedly hurts him.

[hooh-shee-ee-tah-non-mahsh]

hu-                   masculine singular patient, ‘his, him’

-hšiˀt-               noun root ‘foot

-nǫma- verb root ‘to be sick, in pain’

-š                     inchoative root suffix + habitual aspect

ayahšiˀtanǫmaš      My foot repeatedly hurts me.

[ah-yah-shee-ee-tah-non-mahsh]

ay-                   1st person patient, ‘my, me’

-ahšiˀt-             noun root ‘foot

-a-                   noun suffix

-nǫma- verb root ‘to be sick, in pain’

-š                     inchoative + habitual aspect

ayahšiˀtanǫmądih   My foot is hurting me.

[ah-yah-shee-ee-tah-non-man-deeh]

ay-                   1st person singular patient , ‘my, me’

-ahšiˀt-             noun root ‘foot

-a-                   noun suffix

-nǫma- verb root ‘to be sick, in pain’

-ąd-                 inchoative root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

Stomach -nderaˀt-[2]

yanderaˀtaˀ             stomach, her stomach

[yan-deh-rah-ah-tah-ah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic agent ‘it’

-nderaˀt-          noun root ‘stomach’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

kwižuh sanderaˀtanǫmądih Does your stomach hurt?  Do you have a stomach ache?

[kwee-zhooh]

sanderaˀtanǫmądih           Your stomach aches; you have a sore stomach.

[san-deh-rah-ah-tah-non-man-deeh]

sa-                   2nd person singular patient, you

-nderaˀt-          noun root ‘stomach’

-a-                   noun suffix

-nǫm-               verb root ‘to be sick, in pain’

-ąd-                 inchoative root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

ayenderaˀtanǫmądih         My stomach is hurting me.  I have a stomach ache.

[ah-yen-deh-rah-ah-tah-non-man-deeh]

aye-                 1st person singular patient, ‘I’

-nderaˀt-          noun root ‘stomach’

-a-                   noun suffix

-nǫm-               verb root ‘to be sick, in pain’

-ąd-                 inchoative root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

Hęh    ayenderaˀtanǫmądih         Yes, I have a stomach ache.

[henh]

ąˀą               teˀayenderaˀtanǫmądih     No, I don’t have a stomach ache.

[an-an]           [the-eh-wah-yen-deh-rah-ah-tah-non-man-deeh]

Throat  –ngyat-

yangyataˀ               throat, her throat

[yan-gyah-tah-ah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent, ‘it, her’

-ngyat-            noun root ‘throat’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

Kwižuh        sangyatanǫmądih   Does your throat hurt?  Do you have a sore throat?

sangyatanǫmądih   Your throat hurts.  You have a sore throat.

[san-gyah-tah-non-man-deeh]

sa-                   second person singular patient, ‘you (s)’

-ngyat-            noun root ‘throat’

-a-                   noun suffix

nǫm-              verb root ‘to hurt’

-ąd-                 inchoative root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

Hęh    ayengyatanǫmądih           Yes, I have a sore throat.

ayengyatanǫmądih           My throat hurts, I have a sore throat.

[ah-yen-gyah-tah-non-man-deeh]

aye-                 1st person singular patient, ‘my, I’

-ngyat-            noun root ‘throat’

-a-                   noun suffix

nǫm-               verb root ‘to hurt’

-ąd-                 inchoative root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

ąˀą     teˀayengyatanǫmądih                 I don’t have a sore throat

Forehead: -yęˀts-[3] 

yayęˀtsaˀ                    forehead, her forehead

[yah-yen-en-tsah-ah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent, ‘it’ or ‘her’

-yęˀts-              noun root, ‘forehead’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

kwižuh         sayęˀtsanǫmądih    Do you have a forehead ache, a headache?

                        sayęˀtsanǫmądih    Your forehead, your head aches.

[sah-yen-en-tsah-non-man-deeh]

sa-                   2nd person singular patient, ‘you’-yęˀts-              NR, ‘forehead’

-a-                   noun suffix

nǫm-               verb root ‘to hurt’

-ąd-                 inchoative root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

Hęh    ayeyęˀtsanǫmądih            Yes, I have a sore forehead, a headache.

ayeyęˀtsanǫmądih  I have a headache

[ahyeh-yen-en-tsah-non-man-deeh]

aye-                 1st person singular patient ‘I’

                        -yęˀts-              noun root, ‘forehead’

-a-                   noun suffix

nǫm-               verb root ‘to hurt’

-ąd-                 inchoative root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

ąˀą     teˀayeyęˀtsanǫmądih        No, I don’t have a headache.

teˀayeyęˀtsanǫmądih        I don’t have a headache.

[teh-eh-ah-yeh-yen-en-tsah-non-man-deeh]

teˀ-                   negative prefix

aye-                 1st person singular patient, ‘I’

-yęˀts-              noun root, ‘forehead’

-a-                   noun suffix

nǫm-               verb root ‘to hurt’

-ąd-                 inchoative root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

Tooth/Teeth: ˀskǫhš-

yaˀskǫhšaˀ   tooth, teeth, her tooth, her teeth

[yah-ah-skonh-shah-ah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent, ‘it, her’

ˀskǫhš-           noun root, ‘tooth, teeth’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

Kwižuh        saˀskǫhšanǫmądih           Does your tooth, do your teeth hurt?

saˀskǫhšanǫmądih           Your tooth hurts, your teeth hurt.

[sah-ah-skonh-shah-non-man-deeh]

sa-                   2nd person singular patient ‘your’

ˀskǫhš-           noun root, ‘tooth, teeth’

-a-                   noun suffix

nǫm-               verb root ‘to hurt’

-ąd-                 inchoative root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

Hęh    ayeˀskǫhšanǫmądih         Yes, my tooth hurts, my teeth hurt

ayeˀskǫhšanǫmądih         My tooth hurts, my teeth hurt.

[ah-yeh-eh-skonh-shah-non-man-deeh]

aye-                 1st person singular patient, ‘my’

ˀskǫhš-           noun root, ‘tooth, teeth’

-a-                   noun suffix

nǫm-               verb root ‘to hurt’

-ąd-                 inchoative root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

Sick/Pain:  -hšatur-[4]

ahuhšaturęˀ            He became sick, began to feel pain.

[ah-hooh-shah-too-ren-en]

a-                     factual prefix

-hu-                  masculine singular patient ‘he’

-hšatur-           verb root ‘to feel sick, to feel pain’

-ęˀ                    dative root suffix + punctual aspect

ayehšaturandih       I am feeling pain, suffering, being sick.

aye-                 1st person singular patient, ‘I’

-hšatur-           verb root ‘to feel sick, to feel pain’

-and-                dative root suffix

-ih                    stative aspec

Disease:  -ˀtr-

yaˀtruˀtęˀ                It is such a kind of disease.

[yah-ah-troo-oo-ten-en]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-ˀtr-                  noun root ‘disease’

-uˀtę-                verb root ‘to be such’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

etraˀtarinyǫˀ           d        uˀngyuhkwaˀ Small pox is a contagious disease.

etraˀtarinyǫˀ           it is a disease that is hot in many places

[eh-trah-ah-tah-ren-yon-on]

e-                     indefinite agent, ‘it, ‘they‘

-ˀtr-                  noun root ‘disease’

-tari-                verb root ‘to be warm, hot’

-nyǫ-                distributive root suffix

-ˀ                      stative aspect

uˀngyuhkwaˀ small pox

[oo-oon-gyooh-kwah-ah]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

ˀngyuhkw-      noun root ‘smallpox’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

To cure, doctor, use medicine: -tsę(t)-

hǫtetsęhs               They (m[5]) doctor, are doctors, curers.

[hon-teh-tsehs]

hǫ-                   masculine plural agent, ‘they’

-tsę(t)-             verb root ‘to cure, doctor’

-hs                   habitual aspect

usahutsęh               She or he healed, cured him.

[oo-sah-hoo-tsenh]

u-                     factual prefix

-s-                    repetitive[6] prefix

-hu-                  feminine-zoic or masculine singular agent + masculine singular patient

‘she or he to him‘

-tsę(t)-             verb root‘to heal, cure, doctor’

-h                     punctual aspect

Medicine: enǫhkwaˀt

enǫhkwaˀt              It is medicine

[e-nonh-kwah-aht]

enǫhkwaˀt       feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + verb root ‘to be medicine’ + stative aspect

To be right, healthy:  -eri         

usažutižerih            They (f) would be right, healthy.

[oo-sah-zhoo-tee-zheh-reeh]

u-         optative  ‘would’

-s-        repetitive

-až-      optative

-utiž-    feminine-zoic plural patient ‘they (f)’

-eri-     verb root ‘to be right’

-h         punctual aspect

waˀžah         usahuerih  He became a little better, healthier

[wah-ah-zhah]

it is little            he is better

usahuerih     He became healthy, healthier.

[oo-sah-hoo-eh-reeh]

u-         factual

-s-        repetitive

-a-       factual

-hu-      masculine singular patient ‘he’

-eri-     verb root ‘to be right’

-h         punctual aspect

to cough:  -asayaht-

kwižuh sasayahtaˀ            Are you coughing (repeatedly)?

sasayahtaˀ              You are coughing (repeatedly).

[sah-sah-yah-tah-ah]

s-                     2nd person singular patient ‘you’

-asayaht-         verb root ‘to cough’

-aˀ                    habitual aspect (repeatedly, often)

hęh    ayasayahtaˀ            Yes, I am coughing repeatedly.

ayasayahtaˀ            I am coughing repeatedly

[ah-yah-sah-yah-tah-ah]

ay-                   1s person singular patient ‘I’

-asayaht-         verb root ‘to cough’

-aˀ                    habitual aspect

ąˀą     teˀayasayahtaˀ        No, I am not coughing repeatedly.

teˀayasayahtaˀ        I am not coughing repeatedly.

[teh-eh-ah-yah-sah-yah-tah-ah]

teˀ-                   negative prefix

-ay-                  1st person singular patient, ‘I’

-asayaht-         verb root ‘to cough’

-aˀ                    habitual aspect

To sneeze:  -atsǫt-

Kwižuh tesatsǫtaˀ            Are you sneezing repeatedly?

tesatsǫtaˀ               You are sneezing repeatedly.

[teh-sah-tson-tah-ah]

te-                    dualic prefix[7]

-s-                    2nd person singular patient, ‘you (s)’

-atsǫt-             verb root ‘to sneeze’

-aˀ                    habitual aspect

hęh    teˀayatsǫtaˀ            Yes, I am sneezing repeatedly.

[teh-eh-ah-yah-tson-tah-ah]

teˀ-                               negative prefix

-ay-                              1st person singular patient,  ‘I’

-atsǫt-                         verb root ‘to sneeze’

-aˀ                                habitual aspect

Kwižuh aˀsatsǫt               Did you just sneeze?

aˀsatsǫt                 You just sneezed.

[ah-ah-sah-tsont]

aˀ-                    factual

-s-                    2nd person singular patient‘you (s)’

-atsǫt-             verb root ‘to sneeze’ + punctual aspect

ąˀą     teˀaˀayatsǫt            No, I did not just sneeze.

teˀ-                   negative prefix

-aˀ-                  factual

-ay-                  1st person singular patient, ‘I’

-atsǫt-             verb root ‘to sneeze’ + punctual aspect

To vomit: -ngyaˀwa-

utahungyaˀwa         He just vomited.

[oo-tah-hoon-gyah-ah-wah]

u-                     factual

-t-                    dualic

-a-                   factual

-hu-                  masculine singular patient ‘he’

-ngyaˀwa-        verb root ‘to vomit’ + punctual aspect

tewungyaˀwąˀ         She is vomiting.

[teh-woon-gyah-ah-wan-an]

tew-                 dualic

-u-                   feminine-zoic singular patient ‘she’

-ngyaˀwa-        verb root ‘to vomit’

-nˀ                    stative aspect

artery, vein[8]: –tsiˀnǫnyąht-

Kwižuh        satsiˀnǫnyąhtarih    Are you bleeding?

satsiˀnǫnyąhtarih    You are bleeding, your vein, artery is spilling.

[sah-tsee-ee-non-yanh-tah-reeh]

sa-                   2nd person singular patient ‘you (s)’

-tsiˀnǫnyaht-   noun root ‘artery, vein’

-a                     noun suffix

-ri-                   verb root ‘to spill, spread’

-h                     stative aspect

Anęę            d’                etisatsiˀnǫnyąhtarih Where are you bleeding?

Where is it        that which         where you are bleeding

etisatsiˀnǫnyąhtarih You are bleeding in such a place.

[eh-tee-sah-tsee-ee-non-yanh-tah-reeh]

eti-                               cislocative

sa-                               2nd person singular patient, ‘you (s)’

-tsiˀnǫnyaht-               noun root ‘artery, vein’

-a                                 noun suffix

-ri-                               verb root ‘to spill, spread’

-h                                 stative aspect

Tuh    ekyayetsiˀnǫnyąhtarih       de      ayežušaˀye   My elbow is bleeding.

There   it is where I am bleeding            the        on my elbow

ekyayetsiˀnǫnyąhtarih       It is where I am bleeding.

[eh-kyah-yeh-tsee-ee-non-yanh-tah-reeh]

eky-                 cislocative

-aye-                1st person singular patient, ‘I’

-tsiˀnǫnyaht-  noun root ‘artery, vein’

-a-                   noun suffix

-ri-                   verb root ‘to spill, spread’

-h                     stative aspect

[1] This verb differs from the next one in that it is used with noun roots.

[2] A possible alternative is the noun root –semęˀt- ‘belly, stomach ‘.

[3] This noun appears in the name Tsayęˀtsuwat ‘Great Forehead’.

[4] This verb is not used with noun roots.

[5] This refers either to a group that is all male, or a mixed-gender group.

[6] The repetitive is used when the verb refers to someone being cured.  The repetitive can have the sense of being returned to health (see below).

[7] The dualic is used with some verbs that indicate sudden disturbing actions, like sneezing and vomiting.

[8] This noun root also can be used to refer to ‘sinew.’

This entry was posted in Language. Bookmark the permalink.

Comments are closed.