Imperatives in Wyandot

Imperatives in Wyandot

Imperatives in Wyandotte add two elements to a verb, a prefix and a suffix.  The suffix is identical with the punctual suffix.  As should be expected with Wyandot, there are a good number of forms a verb can take with the imperative.  The most common forms are of four different kinds:

  • For one person to do something: you (singular)
  • For more than one person to do something: you (plural)
  • For one person to do something with you.( “Let’s you and I”)
  • For more than one person to do something with you ( “Let’s” with a group)

There are five conjugations of the Wyandotte language based on the forms that the pronominal prefixes take: a-stem, consonant stem (although not all begin with consonants), e-stem, yę-/i-stem and u-/ǫ-stem.

A-Stem

Prefix Forms

s-                                 said to one person (2nd person singular).

ts-                                said to more than one person (2nd person plural).

ky-                               ‘Let’s’ (to one other person)     (1st person dual inclusive)

kwa-                            ‘Let’s’ (to more than one person) (1st person plural inclusive)

*”inclusive” means including the listener or listeners

With -atrihut- ‘to be attentive’

satrihutat                  Listen! (2nd person singular)

[sah-tree-hoo-tat]

-s-                    imperative + 2nd person singular, ‘you’

-atrihut-       verb root, ‘to be attentive’

-at                    causative root suffix + imperative aspect

tsatrihutat                  Listen! (2nd person plural)

[tsah-tree-hoo-tat]

ts-                    imperative + 2nd person plural, ‘you’

-atrihut-           verb root, ‘to be attentive’

-at                    causative root suffix + imperative aspect

kyatrihutat             Let’s listen (1st person inclusive dual)  (said to one person)

[kyah-tree-hoo-tat]

ky-                   imperative  + 1st person inclusive dual agent ‘us’

-atrihut-           VR ‘to be attentive’

-at                    causative root suffix + imperative aspect

kwatrihutat             Let’s listen (1st person inclusive plural) (said to more than one)

[kwah-tree-hoo-tat]

kw-                  imperative + 1st person inclusive plural agent ‘us’

-atrihut-           verb root ‘to be attentive’

-at                    causative root suffix + imperative aspect

With -akahkwa- ‘to look’

sakahkwaˀ             Look!

[sah-kah-kwah-ah]

s-                     imperative + 2nd person singular ‘you’

-akahkwa-  verb root ‘to look’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

aˀsakahkwaˀ           Look there!

[ah-ah-sah-kah-kwah-ah]

aˀ-                    translocative

-s-                    imperative + 2nd person singular ‘you’

-akahkwa-   verb ‘to look’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

kwakahkwaˀ           Let’s look!

[kwah-kah-kwah-ah]

kw-                  imperative + 1st person plural agent ‘us’

-akahkwa-       verb root ‘to look’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

With –arahskwa- ‘to leave, depart’

sarahskwaˀ            leave (said to one person)

[sah-rah-skwah-ah]

s-                     imperative + 2nd person singular

-arahskwa-      verb root ‘to leave’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

tsarahskwaˀ           Leave (said to more than one person)

[tsah-rah-skwah-ah]

ts-                    imperative + 2nd person plural

-arahskwa-  verb root ‘to leave’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

kyarahskwaˀ          Let’s leave (said to one person)

[kyah-rah-skwah-ah]

ky-                   imperative + 1st person dual agent ‘us’

-arahskwa-  verb root ‘to leave’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

kwarahskwaˀ          Let’s leave (said to more than one person)

[kwah-rah-skwah-ah]

kw-                  imperative + 1st person plural agent ‘us’

-arahskwa-      verb root ‘to leave’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

With -atewa- ‘to flee’

tsateˀwaˀ                Flee, escape (said to more than one person)

[tsah-teh-eh-wah-ah]

ts-                    imperative + 2nd person plural ‘you’

-atewa-            verb root ‘to flee’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

With -atestę-  ‘to get down, descend’

tahsatestęh             Get down (said to one person)

[tah-sah-teh-steh]

ta-                    dualic

-hs-                  imperative + 2nd person singular

-atestę-           verb root ‘to get down, descend’

-h                     imperative aspect

With –ǫ- (from -awi) ‘to give’

tikyaˀtatǫˀ              Let’s trade (you and I).

[tee-kyah-ah-tah-ton-on]

ti-                     dualic

-ky-                 imperative +  1st person inclusive dual ‘us’

-aˀtat-               reflexive voice

-ǫˀ                    verb root ‘to give’ (root -awi-) + imperative aspect

With -ahsturat- ‘to be quick, fast’

sahsturaht                 Hurry up! (said to one person)

[sah-stoo-raht]

s-                     imperative + 2nd person singular ‘you’

-ahsturat-        verb root, ‘to be quick, fast’ + imperative aspect

tsahsturaht                Hurry up! (said to more than one person)

[tsah-stoo-raht]

ts-                    imperative + 2nd person plural, ‘you’

-ahsturaht-      verb root, ‘to be quick, fast’ + imperative aspect

kyahsturaht            Let’s hurry! (said to one person)

[kyah-stoo-raht]

ky-                   imperative + 1st person inclusive dual agent ‘us’

-ahsturaht-  verb root, ‘to be quick, fast’ + imperative aspect

kwahsturaht           Let’s hurry! (said to more than one person)

[kwah-stoo-raht]

kw-                  imperative + 1st person inclusive plural agent ‘us’

-ahsturaht-      verb  root, ‘to be quick, fast’  + imperative aspect

Consonant Stem

Prefix Forms

sa-                               said to one person (2nd person singular)

tsi-                               said to more than one person (2nd person plural)

ti-                                 Let’s (said to one person) – if a consonant follows

kwa-                            Let’s (said to more than one person)

With -ndrawa- ‘to dance’

sandrawaˀ              Dance! (said to one person)

[san-drah-wah-ah]

sa-                   imperative + 2nd person singular

-ndrawa-          verb root ‘to dance’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

tsindrawaˀ              Dance! (said to more than one person)

[tseen-drah-wah-ah]

tsi-                   imperative + 2nd person plural

-ndrawa-          verb root ‘to dance’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

tindrawaˀ               Let’s dance (you and I).

[teen-drah-wah-ah]

ti-                     imperative + 1st person inclusive dual ‘us’

-ndrawa-          verb root ‘to dance’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

kwandrawaˀ           Let’s dance (talking to a group).

[kwan-drah-wah-ah]

kwa-                imperative + 1st person inclusive plural ‘us’

-ndrawa-          verb root ‘to dance’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

With -ža- ‘to shoot’

saˀžah                    Shoot (said to  one person).

[sah-ah-zhah]

sa-                   imperative + 2nd person singular ‘you’

-ža-                  verb root ‘to shoot’

-h                     imperative aspect

tsiˀžah                   Shoot (said to more than one person)

[tsee-ee-zhah]

tsi-                   imperative + 2nd person plural ‘you (pl)’

-ža-                  verb root ‘to shoot’

-h                     imperative aspect

With -ngyah- noun root ‘food’ + verb root ‘to eat’

sangyahah             Eat (said to one person)

[san-gyah-ah]

sa-                   imperative + 2nd person singular ‘you’

-ngyah-            noun root ‘corn soup, food’ + verb root ‘to eat’

-ah                   imperative aspect

tsingyahah             Eat  (said to more than one person)

[tseen-gyah-ah]

tsi-                   imperative + 2nd person plural ‘you’

-ngyah-            noun root ‘corn soup, food’ + verb root ‘to eat’

-ah                   imperative aspect

With –mę- ‘to wait’ (only form of this verb)

samęh                             Wait!

[sah-menh]

sa-                   imperative + 2nd person singular ‘you’

-mę-                 verb root ‘to wait’

-h                     imperative aspect

sanyǫˀ                   Come home!

[san-nyon-on]

sa-                   imperative + second person singular ‘you’

-nyǫ-                verb root ‘to arrive’ (verb root is usually-)

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

sąngyareh              Go first!

[san-gyah-reh]

są-                   imperative + second person singular

-ngyare-          verb root ‘to go first’

-h                     imperative aspect

With the very common noun root -aˀt- (consonant conjugation)

With –tę– ‘to stop’

saaˀtatęh                  Stop! (said to one person)

[sah-ah-ah-ta-tenh]

sa-                   imperative aspect + 2A, ‘you’

-aˀt-                 noun root, ‘body’

-a-                   noun suffix

-tę                  verb root ‘to stop’

-h-                   imperative aspect

tsiaˀtatęh                    Stop (said to more than one person)

[tsee-ah-ah-tah-tenh]

tsa-                  imperative + 2nd person plural agent , ‘you (pl.)’

-aˀt-                 noun root, ‘body’

-a-                   noun suffix

-tę–                  verb root ‘to stop’

-h-                   imperative aspect

kyaˀtatęh                Let’s stop! (said to one person)[1]

[kyah-ah-tah-tenh]

ky-                   imperative + 1st person inclusive dual agent ‘us’

-aˀt-                 noun root, ‘body’

-a-                   noun suffix

-tę                  verb root ‘to stop’

-h-                   imperative aspect

kwaˀtatęh               Let’s stop! (said to more than one person)

[kwah-ah-tah-tenh]

kw-                  imperative + 1st person inclusive plural agent ‘us’

-aˀt-                 noun root, ‘body’

-a-                   noun suffix

-tę-                  verb root ‘to stop’

-h-                   imperative aspect

setuhtǫh                Shut the door (said to one person)

[seh-tooht-tonh]

se-[2]                  imperative  + 2nd person singular ‘you’

-tu-                  noun root ‘door’

-htǫ                verb root ‘to shut’

-h                     imperative aspect

setuhtǫwaˀ             Open the door (said to one person)

[she-tooh-tonwah-ah]

se-                   imperative + 2nd person singular ‘you’

-tu-                  noun root ‘door’

-htǫ                verb root ‘to shut’

-wa-                 undoer root suffix

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

E-Stem

Pronominal Prefixes

s-                     2nd person singular

st-                    2nd person plural

t-                      1st person inclusive dual agent

kw-                  1st person inclusive plural agent

Verb Root -e- ‘to come, go, walk’

aseh             Come here!  (said to one person, often with ayuˀ ‘here’ before it)

[ah-seh]

a-         cislocative ‘here’

-s-        imperative + 2nd person singular

-e-        verb root ‘to come’

-h         imperative aspect

asteh            Come here! (said to more than one person, often with ayuˀ before it)

[ah-steh]

a-       cislocative ‘here’

-st-       imperative + 2nd person plural

-e-        verb root ‘to come’                                                                                                                  -h             imperative aspect

seh              Go there! (said to one person, often with tuh before it)

[seh]

s-         imperative + 2nd person singular

-e-        verb root ‘to go’

-h         imperative aspect

steh   Go there! (said to more than one person, often with tuh before it)

[steh]

st-        imperative + 2nd person plural

-e–       verb root ‘to go’

-h         imperative aspect

eteh     Let’s go! (you and I)

[eh-teh]

e-         translocative ‘there’

-t-        imperative + 1st person inclusive dual agent‘us’

-e-        verb root ‘to go’

-h         imperative aspect

ekweh          Let’s go! (a group)

[eh-kweh]

e-         translocative ‘there’

-kw-    imperative + 1st person inclusive plural ‘us’

-e-        verb root ‘to go’

-h         imperative aspect

aˀseht           Go to a place! (Wyandotte aˀseht.  Go to Wyandotte!)

[ah-ah-seht]

aˀ-        translocative ‘there’

-s-        imperative + 2nd person singular

-e-        verb root ‘to go’

-ht        causative root suffix + imperative aspect

saseht          Go back!

[sah-seht]

s-         repetitive ’back’

-a-       translocative ‘there’

-s-        imperative + 2nd person singular

-e-       verb root ‘to go’

-ht        causative root suffix + imperative aspect

Yę-/i- Stem

tsi-                                           2nd person singular

sti                                             2nd person plural

ti-                                             1st person inclusive dual agent

kwę-                                        1st person inclusive plural agent

With –ihǫ– ‘to say’

tsihǫˀ           Say it (speaking to one person)

[tsee-hon-on]

ts-        imperative + 2nd person singular ‘you (s)’

-ihǫ-     verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          imperative aspect

stihǫˀ           Say it (speaking to a group of people).

[stee-hon-on]

st-        imperative + 2nd person plural ‘you (p)’

-ihǫ-     verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          imperative aspect

sęndikwarurih        Cover yourself with a blanket.

[sen-dee-kwah-roo-reeh]

s-         imperative + 2nd person singular ‘you’

-ęd-     semireflexive voice ‘self’

-ikwar- noun root ‘blanket

-uri-     verb root ‘to cover’

-h         imperative aspect

u-/ǫ stem

s-                     2nd person singular

st-                    2nd person plural

t-                      1st person dual agent

ky-                   1st person plural agent

With noun root –ǫt- ‘life’ + verb root -ra- ‘to be on top’

sǫtaraˀ         Be on top of life, be happy (said to one person).

[son-tah-rah-ah]

s-         imperative + 2nd person singular

-ǫt-      noun root ‘life’

-a-       noun suffix

-ra-      verb root ‘to be on top’

-ˀ          imperative aspect

stǫtaraˀ        Be on top of life, be happy (said to more than one person).

[ston-tah-rah-ah]

st-        imperative + 2nd person plural

-ǫt-      noun root ‘life’

-a-       noun suffix

-ra-      verb root ‘to be on top’

-ˀ          imperative aspect

tǫtaraˀ                   Let’s us two be on top of life, be happy.

[ton-tah-rah-ah]

t-          imperative + 1st person inclusive dual agent ‘us’

-ǫt-      noun root ‘life’

-a-       noun suffix

-ra-      verb root ‘to be on top’

-ˀ          imperative aspect

kyǫtaraˀ       Let’s (plural) be on top of life, be happy.

[kyon-tah-rah-ah]

ky-       imperative + 1st person inclusive plural ‘us’

-ǫt-      noun root ‘life’

-a-       noun suffix

-ra-      verb root ‘to be on top’

-ˀ          imperative aspect

With ‘Me” or “Us” as the Object

tayęˀngyarahs         Help me!

[tah-yen-en-gyar-rahs]

ta-        imperative

-yę-      1st person agent ‘me’

-ˀngy-   noun root ‘finger, hand’

-a-       noun suffix

-ra-      verb root ‘to be with’

-hs       dative root suffix + imperative aspect

tamęˀngyarahs        Help us!

[tah-men-en-gyah-rahs]

t-          imperative

-amę-   1st person exclusive plural ‘us’ (excluding the listener)

-ˀngy-   noun root ‘finger, hand’

-a-       noun suffix

-ra-      verb root ‘to be with’

-hs       dative root suffix + imperative aspect

taitęr            Have compassion, pity on me

[tah-ii-tenr]

ta-        imperative

-itęr-    1st person singular ‘me’ + verb root ‘to have compassion’ + imperative                                      aspect

tamętęr        Have compassion, pity on us.

[tah-men-tenr]

t-          imperative

-am-     1st person exclusive plural ‘us’

-ętęr-   verb root ‘to have compassion’ + imperative aspect

tanǫht          Give it to me.

[tan-noht]

ta-        imperative

-nǫht    1st person singular ‘me’ + verb root ‘to give’ + imperative aspect

tawanǫht      Give it to us.

[tah-wah-noht]

t-          imperative

-awa-   1st person exclusive plural agent ‘us’

-nǫht    verb root ‘to give’ + imperative aspect

tayengyuhah          Ferry me across.

[tah-yen-gyoo-hah]

ta-        imperative

-ye-      1st person singular agent ‘me’

-ngyuh– vrb root ‘to cross water’

-ah       imperative aspect

tawangyuhah          Ferry us across.

[tah-wan-gyoo-hah]

t-          imperative

-awa-   1st person exclusive plural agent ‘us’

-ngyuh- verb root ‘to cross water’

-ah       imperative aspect

tayendaˀerah          Copy me.

[tah-yen-dah-ah-eh-rah]

ta-        imperative

-ye-      1st person singular agent ‘me’

-ndaˀer- verb root ‘to copy’

-ah       imperative aspect

tawandaˀerah         Copy us.

[tah-wan-dah-ah-eh-rah]

t-          imperative

-awa-   1st person exclusive plural agent ‘us’

-ndaˀer– verb root ‘to copy’

-ah       imperative aspect

tarǫhs          Clean it (many things) off of me.

[tah-ronhs]

ta-        imperative

-r-        1st person singular ‘me’ + verb root ‘to be with’

-ǫ-       distributive root suffix + undoer root suffix

-hs       dative root suffix + imperative aspect

tawarǫhs      Clean it off of us

[tah-wah-ronhs]

t-          imperative

-awa-   1st person exclusive plural agent ‘us’

-r-        verb root ‘to be with’

-ǫ-       distributive root suffix + undoer root suffix

-hs       dative root suffix + imperative aspect

To her

satęndutǫˀ             Tell her!

[sah-ten-doo-ton-on]

s-                     imperative + 2nd person singular  + feminine-zoic singular patient                                             ‘her’

-atę-                semireflexive voice

-ndutǫ-          verb root ‘to tell’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

satsataha               Show it to her.

[sah-tsah-tah-hah]

s-                     imperative + 2nd person singular  + feminine-zoic singular patient ‘her’

-atsata-         verb root ‘to show’

-h-                  dative root suffix

-a                     imperative aspect

saaˀtihšah              Look for her.

[sah-ah-teeh-shah]

sa-                   imperative + 2nd person singular + feminine-zoic singular patient ‘her’

-aˀt-                 noun root ‘body’

-ihš-                 verb root ‘to look, search for’

-ah                   imperative aspect

To Him

hesatęndutǫˀ          Tell him!

[heh-sah-ten-doo-ton-on]

hes-                  imperative + 2nd person singular + masculine singular patient ‘him’

-atę-                 semireflexive voice

-ndutǫ-            verb root ‘to tell’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

hehtsatsataha         Show it to him.

[heh-tsah-tsah-ta-hah]

hehts-               imperative+ 2nd person singular + masculine singular patient ‘him’

-atsata-           verb root ‘to show’

-h-                   dative root suffix

-a                     imperative aspect

hehseaˀtihšah         Look for him!

[heh-she-ah-ah-tee-shah]

hehse-              imperative + 2nd person singular + masculine singular patient ‘him’

-aˀt-                 noun root ‘body’

-ihš-                 verb root ‘to look, search for’

-ah                   imperative

Questions:  translate into Wyandot

  • “Flee” – said to one person: ____________________________________________________
  • “Let’s flee” said to one person__________________________________________________
  • “Let’s flee” said to more than one person__________________________________________
  • “Get down” said to more than one person__________________________________________
  • “Let’s eat” said to one person____________________________________________________
  • “Let’s eat” said to more than one person___________________________________________
  • “Let’s go first” said to one person________________________________________________
  • “Let’s go first” said to more than one person_______________________________________

 

 

[1] When a vowel follows -ti-, it become -ky-.

[2] With some verbs se- is used instead of sa-.

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