Mealtime in Wyandot

Mealtime in Wyandotte

Bolded examples are those that are recorded.

Hungry: -oręhš– ‘breath’+ -ast- ‘to be hard’

Kwižuh šatǫręhšahstaˀ     Are you hungry?

[kwee-zhooh]

šatǫręhšahstaˀ        You are hungry (your breath is hard)

[shah-ton-renh-shah-stah-ah]

š-              2nd person singular agent ‘you’

-at-           semireflexive voice

-oręhš–   noun root ‘breath’

-ast-        verb root‘to be hard, strong’

-aˀ             habitual aspect

Hęh    yatǫręhšahstaˀ        Yes, I am hungry.

[henh]

yatǫręhšahstaˀ     I am hungry (my breath is hard)

[yah-ton-renh-shah-stah-ah]

y-             1st person singular agent ‘I, my’

-at-          semireflexive voice

-oręhš–  noun root ‘breath’

-ast-        verb root ‘to be hard, strong’

-aˀ              habitual aspect

ąˀą     teˀyatǫręhšahstaˀ    No, I am not hungry.

[an-an]

teˀyatǫręhšahstaˀ    I am not hungry.

[teh-eh-yah-ton-renh-shah-stah-ah]

teˀ-         negative prefix

-y-          1st person singular agent ‘I, my’

-at-         semireflexive voice

-oręhš– noun root ‘breath’

-ast-      verb root ‘to be hard, strong’

-aˀ            habitual aspect

To be hungry for[1]: -nǫma-

haˀwahtsanǫmas    He is hungry for meat.

[hah-ah-wah-tsah-non-mahs]

ha-                   masculine singular agent ‘he’

-ˀwahts-          noun root ‘meat’

-a-                   noun suffix

-nǫma- verb root ‘to be hungry for’

-s                     habitual aspect

yanęhanǫmas       She is hungry for corn.

[yah-nen-hah-non-mahs]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘she’

-nęh-                noun root ‘corn’

-a-                   noun suffix

-nǫma- verb root ‘to be hungry for’

-s                     habitual aspect

yeˀndataranǫmas    I am hungry for bread

[yeh-ehn-dah-tah-rah-non-mahs]

ye-                   1st person singular agent ‘I’

-ˀndatar-         noun root ‘bread’

-a-                   noun suffix

-nǫma-          verb root ‘to be hungry for’

-s                     habitual aspect

Eating

To eat: -(y)-[2]

ayengyahay                    I am eating (food).

[ah-yen-gyah-hahy]

aye-                 1st person singular patient ‘I’

-ngyah-            noun root ‘food’

-a-                   noun suffix

-y                     verb root ‘to eat’ + stative aspect

ayengyaha              I ate (food).

[ah-yen-gyah-ah-ha]

a-                     factual

-ye-                 1st person singular agent ‘I’

-ngyah-           noun root ‘food’

-a-                   noun suffix + verb root ‘to eat’ + punctual aspect

hangyahaš              He eats often.

[han-gyah-hahsh]

ha-                    masculine singular agent ‘he’

-ngyah-            noun root ‘food’

-š                       verb root ‘to eat’ + habitual aspect

To eat something: -yaž

eyeˀndatarayažah    I will eat bread.

[eh-yen-en-dah-tah-rah-yah-zhah]

e-                     future

-ye-                 1st person singular agent ‘I’

-ˀndatar-          noun root ‘bread’

-a-                   noun suffix

-yaž–               verb root ‘to eat’

-ah                   punctual aspect

yeˀndatarayažahs    I often eat bread.

[yen-en-dah-tah-rah-yah-zhahs]

ye-                   1st person singular agent ‘I’

-ˀndatar-         noun root ‘bread’

-a-                   noun suffix

-yaž–              verb root ‘to eat’

-ahs                  habitual aspect

ayeˀndatarayažęh    I am eating bread.

[ah-yeh-en-dah-tah-rah-yah-zhenh]

aye-                 1st person singular patient ‘I’

-ˀndatar-         noun root ‘bread’

-a-                   noun suffix

-yaž–              verb root ‘to eat’

-ęh                   stative aspect

seˀndatarayažah     Eat your bread!

[seh-en-dah-tah-rah-yah-zhah]

se-                   imperative + 2nd person singular agent ‘your’

-ˀndatar-        noun root ‘bread’

-a-                   noun suffix

-yaž–              verb root ‘to eat’

-ah                   imperative aspect

To eat enough, be satiated, full: -ahta-

ayahtahaˀ             I have eaten enough.

[ah-yah-tah-hah-ah]

a-                     factual

-y-                   1st person singular agent ‘I’

-ahta-            verb root‘to eat enough’

-haˀ                  inchoative root suffix + punctual aspect

teˀayahtahaˀ            I have not eaten enough.

[teh-eh-ah-yah-tah-hah-ah]

teˀ-                   negative

-a-                   factual

-y-                   1st person singular agent ‘I’

-ahta-             verb root ‘to eat enough’

-haˀ                  inchoative root suffix + punctual aspect

Kwižuh        aˀsahtahaˀ     Have you eaten enough?

ahšahtahaˀ    You have eaten enough.

[ah-shah-tah-hah-ah]

a-         factual

-hš-      2nd person singular agent ‘you’

-ahta– verb root ‘to eat enough’

-haˀ      inchoative root suffix + punctual aspect

Cooking

To Cook in a Pot, boil:  -yanyǫ-

ayayanyǫˀ              She cooked (it[3]).

[ah-yah-yan-yon-on]

a-                     factual prefix

-ya-                  feminine-zoic singular agent ‘she’

-yanyǫ-           verb root ‘to cook’

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

uyayanyǫˀ            She is cooking (it).

[oo-yah-yan-yon-on]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘she’

-yanyǫ-           verb root ‘to cook’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

ǫwayanyǫˀ             She is cooking it for us.

[on-wah-yan-yon-on]

ǫwa-                feminine-zoic singular agent + 1st person plural patient ‘she to us’

-yanyǫ-           verb root ‘to cook’

-ˀ                        stative aspect

seyanyǫˀ               Cook it.

[seh-yan-yon-on]

se-                   imperative  + 2nd person singular agent ‘you’

-yanyǫ-          verb root ‘to cook’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

ahayanyǫˀ              He cooked it.

[ah-hah-yan-yon-on]

a-                     factual prefix

-ha-                 masculine singular agent ‘he’

-yanyǫ-          verb root ‘to cook’

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

ahaˀwahtsayanyǫˀ   He cooked meat.

[ah-hah-ah-wah-tsah-yan-yon-on]

a-                     factual prefix

-ha-               masculine singular agent ‘he’

-wahts-         noun root ‘meat’

-a-                  noun suffix

-yanyǫ-        verb root ‘to cook’

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

seˀwahtsayanyǫ     Cook (the) meat.

[seh-eh-wah-tsah-yan-yon-on]

se-                   imperative + 2nd person singular agent ‘you’

-ˀwats-             noun root ‘meat’

-a-                   noun suffix

-yanyǫ-            verb root ‘to cook’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

To Cook (Corn) in Ashes, Coals: -ateˀnyǫ-

 

awateˀnyǫˀ             She cooked corn in ashes, coals.

[ah-wah-ten-en-yon-on]

-aw                    factual prefix

-ateˀnyǫ-         feminine-zoic singular agent + verb root ‘to cook corn in ashes, coals’

-ˀ                        punctual aspect

unyǫhšaˀ      awateˀnyǫˀ   She cooked squash in ashes, coals.

unyǫhšaˀ                squash, pumpkin

[oon-yonh-shah-ah]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-nyǫhš-          noun root ‘squash, pumpkin’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

uteˀnyǫˀ                 She is cooking corn in ashes, coals, barbecuing.

[oo-ten-en-yon-on]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘she’

-(a)teˀnyǫ-    verb root ‘to cook corn in ashes, coals’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

uˀwahtsaˀ     huteˀnyǫˀ     He is cooking meat in coals, barbecuing.

uˀwahtsaˀ                                                                          meat, flesh

[oo-oo-wah-tsah-ah]

u-                    feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ˀwahts–        noun root ‘meat, flesh’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

huteˀnyǫˀ              He is cooking in coals, barbecuing.

[hoo-ten-en-yon-on]

hu-               masculine singular patient ‘he’

-teˀnyǫ–       feminine-zoic singular agent + verb root ‘to cook corn in coals’

-ˀ                    stative suffix

To Bake (to put into fire): -ǫt-

eˀndaˀtarǫtęh                  I will bake bread, cake.

[en-en-dah-ah-tah-ron-teh]

e-                      future +1st person singular agent ‘I’[4]

-ˀndaˀtar          noun root‘bread, cornbread, cake’

-ǫt-                    verb root ‘to put into fire’

-ęh                      punctual aspect

yaˀndaˀtarǫtah                She bakes bread, cakes.

[yan-an-dah-ah-tah-ron-tah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘she’

-ˀndaˀtar-        noun root ‘bread’

-ǫt-                  verb root ‘to put into fire’

-ah                   habitual aspect

ayaˀndaˀtarǫtęh                She baked bread, a cake.

[ah-yan-an-dah-ah-tah-ron-tenh]

a-                     factual prefix

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘she’

-ˀndˀtar-          noun root ‘bread’

-ǫt-                  verb root ‘to put into fire’

-ęh                   punctual aspect

Food, Meal: -kw-

ayekwaˀ      my food, meal

[ah-yeh-kwah-ah]

aye-     1st person singular patient ‘my’

-kw-     noun root ‘food, meal’

-aˀ        noun suffix

sakwaˀ         your (s) food, meal

[sah-kwah-ah]

sa-       2nd person singular patient ‘your’

-kw-     noun root ‘food, meal’

-aˀ        noun suffix

tayekwǫˀ      Give me food[5]

[tah-yeh-kwon-on]

t-        imperative

-aye-      1st person singular patient ‘me’

-kw-     noun root ‘food’

-ǫ-       verb root ‘to give’

-ˀ          imperative aspect

tawakwǫˀ     Give us food.

[tah-wah-kwon-on]

t-          imperative

-awa-   1st person inclusive plural agent ‘us’ (but excluding you)

-kw-     noun root ‘food’

-ǫ-        verb root ‘to give’

-ˀ          imperative aspect

deka   ukwayawih   This food tastes or smells good.

deka            this, here

[deh-kah]

ukwayawih   food tastes or smells good

[oo-kwah-yah-weeh]

u-         feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-kw-    noun root ‘food’

-a-       noun suffix

-yaw-  verb root ‘to smell or taste good’

-ih        stative aspect

utǫrǫtǫˀ       ukwaˀ          There is plenty of food.

utǫrǫtǫˀ                 There is plenty.

[oo-ton-ron-ton-on]

u-                      feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

                    -(a)tǫrǫtǫ-      verb root ‘to be plenty’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

ukwaža       There is little food.  It is a little food, a snack.

[oo-kwah-zhah]

u-         feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-kw-    noun root ‘food’

-a-       verb root ‘to be such a magnitude’

-ža       stative aspect + diminutive aspect suffix

ukwuwanęh            It is a large meal.

[oo-kwoo-wah-nenh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-kw-                 noun root ‘meal’

-uwanę-           verb root ‘to be large’

-h                     stative aspect

Meat, Flesh -ˀwahts-

uˀwahtsaˀ                    meat, flesh

[oo-oo-wah-tsah-ah]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ˀwahts-        noun root ‘meat, flesh’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

tayeˀwahtsǫˀ           Give me meat, flesh

[tah-yeh-eh-wah-tson-on]

ta-                      imperative

-ye-                 1st person singular agent ‘me’

-ˀwahts-        noun root ‘meat, flesh’

-ǫ                     verb root ‘to give’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

deka   uwahtsayawih        This meat tastes or smells good.

 

uˀwahtsayawih      meat tastes or smells good

[oo-oo-wah-tsah-yah-weeh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ˀwahts-        noun root ‘meat’

-a-                   noun suffix

-yaw-              verb root ‘to taste or smell good’

-ih                    stative aspect

kwiskwis      uˀwahtsaˀ               pig meat, pork

kyutǫhuskwerǫt      uˀwahtsaˀ     cow meat, beef

kwehsęˀ uˀwahtsaˀ                     chicken (the meat)

Bread -ˀndaˀtar-

uˀndaˀtaraˀ             bread, cornbread, cake

[oo-oon-dah-ah-tah-rah-ah]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ˀndaˀtar-        noun root ‘bread, cornbread, cake’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

uˀndaˀtarižaˀih        She is cutting bread, cake.

[oo-oon-dah-ah-tah-ree-zhah-ah-eeh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘she’

ˀndaˀtar-     noun root ‘bread’

-ižaˀ-                verb root ‘to cut’

-ih                    stative aspect

uˀndaˀtarawęnǫdih          It is round bread, cake.

[oo-oon-dah-ah-tah-rah-wen-on-deeh]

u-                    feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ˀndaˀtar-     noun root ‘bread, cornbread, cake’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

-węnǫdi-        verb root ‘to be round’

-h                      stative aspect

uˀndaˀtaražuˀtęh                It is soft bread, cake.

[oo-oon-dah-ah-tah-rah-zhoo-oo-tenh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ˀndaˀtar-    noun root ‘bread, cornbread, cake’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

-žuˀtę-               verb root ‘to be soft’

-h                      stative aspect

uˀndaˀtarayaste               It is hard bread, cake.

[oo-oon-dayh-ah-tah-rah-yah-steh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ˀndaˀtar-         noun root ‘bread, cornbread, cake’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

-yaste               verb root ‘to be hard, firm’ + stative aspect

undatsaˀ       uˀndaˀtarongyatih   It is bread made of wheat.

undatsaˀ                     wheat

[oon-dah-tsah-ah]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ndats-           noun root ‘wheat’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

uˀndaˀtarongyatih   Bread is made of it.

[oo-oon-dah-ah-tar-on-gyah-teeh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ˀndaˀtar-      noun root ‘bread, bread, cake’

-ongy-              verb root ‘to make’

-at-                   causative root suffix

-ih                     stative aspect

cornmeal, flour:  -taˀihšr- 

yataˀihšraˀ            cornmeal, meal

[yah-tah-ah-ee-shrah-ah]

ya-                  feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

taˀi              verb root ‘to pound, grind’

-hšr-                nominalizer

-aˀ                    noun suffix

ayetaˀit                   I ground, pounded corn, grain.

[ah-yeh-tah-ah-eet]

t-                      factual

-ye-                  1st person singular agent ‘I’

-taˀi-                verb root ‘to grind, pound’

            -t                       causative root suffix + punctual aspect

yataˀihšraˀ   uˀndaˀtarongyatih             Bread is made of cornmeal, flour.

Corn Soup, Soup, Food -ngyah-

yangyahaˀ             corn soup, soup, food

[yan-gyah-hah-ah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-ngyah-         noun root ‘corn soup, soup, food’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

ungyahaˀtarihęh      It is hot soup.

[oon-gyah-hah-ah-tah-ree-henh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

ngyah-         noun root ‘corn soup, soup, food’

-aˀtarih-          verb root ‘to be hot’

-ęh                   stative aspect

ungyahanduhstih    It is cold soup.

[oon-gyah-han-doo-steeh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

ngyah-           noun root ‘corn soup, soup, food’

-a-                      noun suffix

-ndust-             verb root ‘to be cold (water)

-ih                    stative aspect

tayengyahǫˀ          Give me some soup.

[tah-yen-gyah-hon-on]

t-                    imperative

-aye-              1st person singular patient ‘me’

ngyah-          noun root  ‘corn soup, soup, food’

-a-                    noun suffix

-ǫ-                    verb root ‘to give’

-ˀ                      imperative aspect

uyaresaˀ       ungyahongyatih      It is soup made out of beans.

uyaresaˀ     bean, beans

[oo-yah-reh-sah-ah]

u-                      feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-yares–            noun root ‘beans’

-aˀ                      noun suffix

ungyahongyatih      It is soup made out of something.

[oon-gyah-hon-gyah-teeh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ngyah-          noun root ‘soup’

-ongy-              verb root ‘to make’

-at-                  causative root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

uyahkwętaˀ    ungyahongyatih    It is soup made out of peas; pea soup.

uyahkwętaˀ           peas

[oo-yah-kwen-tah-ah]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-yahkwęt-        noun root ‘peas’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

kwehsęˀ       ungyahongyatih      It is soup made out of chicken; chicken soup.

[kweh-sen-en]

[1] This verb root always incorporates a noun.

[2] This appears to be the sometimes apparent verb part of a structurally strange noun  and verb combination.

[3] In the Narratives this is presented with a -w- rather than a –

y-, which does not fit with the other examples.

[4] The noun root for ‘bread’ is one of a few  in which the -ye-  of the 1st person singular agent is dropped.

[5] There is no word meaning ‘please’ in Wyandotte.  The politeness lies in how the words are said, a request not a demand or a command.

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