nominalizers in Wyandot

Nominalizers

Nominalizers follow verb roots, changing those roots into noun stems. The form taken is -hš(r)-.

To be an Onion -ˀnǫk-

yaˀnǫk                   It is an onion.

[yah-ah-nonk]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-ˀnǫk-               verb root ‘to be an onion’ + stative aspect

yaˀnǫhšaˀ              onion

[yah-ah-nonh-shah-ah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-ˀnǫ-                verb root ‘to be an onion’

           -hš-                  nominalizer

-aˀ                    noun suffix

saˀnǫhšaerat          Add onion, onions

[sah-ah-nonh-shah-eh-rat]

sa-                    imperative + 2nd person singular agent ‘you (s)’

-ˀnǫ-                 verb root ‘to be an onion’

           -hš-                  nominalizer

-a-                    noun suffix

-erat-                verb root ‘to add to’ + imperative aspect

To be a Knife -enę

wenęh                   It is a knife.

[wen-nenh]

w-                adds no meaning

-enę-           feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + verb root ‘to be a  knife’

-h                     stative aspect

wenęšraˀ               knife

[wen-nen-shrah-ah]

w-                  adds no meaning

-enę-             feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + verb root ‘to be a knife’

r-                  nominalizer

-aˀ                     noun suffix

wenęšretsih           It is a long knife.

[wen-nen-shreh-tseeh]

w-                  adds no meaning

-enę-             feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + verb root ‘to be a knife’

r-                nominalizer

-ets-               verb root ‘to be long’

-ih                   stative aspect

To be Ten -ahsę

ahsęh                    It is ten.

[ah-senh]

ahsę-                feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + verb root ‘to be ten’

-h                     stative aspect

ndahk iwahsęh.               It is four tens, forty.

four

iwahsęh                It is such a number of tens.

[ee-wah-senh]

iw-              partitive ‘such’

ahsę-        feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + verb root ‘to be ten’

-h              stative aspect

ahsęhšaˀ               ten

[ah-senh-shah-ah]

ahsę-        feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + verb root ‘to be ten’

-hš-           nominalizer

-aˀ              noun suffix

uhsęhšuwanęh      It is a large ten, a high price.

[ooh-senh-shoo-wan-enh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-hsę-                verb root ‘to be ten’

-hš-                  nominalizer

-uwanę-           verb root ‘to be large’

-h

To be sand -ˀnde-

ǫˀndek                  It is sand.

[on-on-dehk]

ǫ-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ˀnde-           verb root ‘to be sand’

-hk                   stative aspect

ǫˀndehšaˀ              sand

[on-on-deh-shah-ah]

ǫ-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ˀnde-               verb root ‘to be sand’

-hš-                  nominalizer

-aˀ                    noun suffix

yaˀndehšu             sandbar

[yah-an-deh-shoo]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-ˀnde-               verb root ‘to be sand’

-hš-                  nominalizer

-u                     verb root ‘to be in water’ + stative aspect

Uˀndehšurih        She is covered with sand (female Prairie Turtle name).

[oo-oon-deh-shoo-reeh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ˀnde-               verb root ‘to be sand’

-hš-                  nominalizer

-uri-                 verb root ‘to cover’

-h                     stative aspect

to grind, pound -taˀi-

ayetaˀit                            I ground, pounded corn, grain.

[ah-yeh-tah-ah-eet]

aye-                             1st person singular patient ‘I’

-taˀi-                            verb root ‘to grind, pound’

-t                                stative aspect

yataˀihšraˀ                      cornmeal, flour

[yah-tah-ah-ee-hshrah-ah]

ya-                               feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-taˀi-                             verb root ‘to grind, pound’

-hšr-                             nominalizer

-aˀ                                noun suffix

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