Past Aspect Suffix

Past Aspect Suffix

The  past aspect suffix puts the verb into deep time.  There are three different basic forms that it takes:  -nęh after the stative aspect; usually -kwa՚ after the habitual aspect, and -k after the purposive aspect.

With the Stative

awerinęh              She had thought.

[ah-weh-ree-nenh]

aw-                  feminine-zoic singular patient – she

-er-                   verb root – to wish, think

-i-                     stative aspect

-nęh                 past aspect suffix

 

hutinęrǫkyǫˀnęh.   They (m) went hunting (in the past).

[hoo-tee-nen-ron-kyon-on-nenh]

huti-                 masculine plural patient – they (m)

-nęrǫky-           verb root – to go hunting

-ǫˀ-                   stative aspect

-nęh                 past aspect suffix

 

kęnęˀ                    When it was (in the past).

[ken-nen-en]

k-                     cislocative

-ę-                    verb root – to be + stative aspect

-nęˀ                  past aspect suffix

 

iyarihuhtęnęˀ         It was a matter of such a nature (in the past).

[ee-yah-ree-hoo-ten-nen-en]

i-                      partitive – suc

-ya-                  feminine-zoic singular agent – it

-rih-                 noun root – matter

-uhtę-               verb root – to be of such a nature + stative aspect

-nęˀ                  past aspect suffix

With the Habitual

yeˀetišakeˀskwaˀ    I used to go look for a claw.

[yeh-eh-tee-shah-keh-eh-skwah-ah]

ye-                   1st person singular agent – I

-ˀet-                  noun root – claw

-iša-                 verb root – to look, search for

-k-                    dislocative root suffix

-eˀs-                 habital aspect

-kwaˀ               past aspect suffix

 

aˀnariskwaˀ            It used to chew bones (wolf).

[ah-ah-nah-ree-skwah-ah]

a-                     feminine-zoic singular agent – it[1]

-՚n-                   noun root – bone(s)

-a-                    noun suffix

-ri-                   verb root – to chew

-s-                    habitual aspect

-kwaˀ               past aspect suffix

 

yęhęˀ                    It used to be.

[yen-hen-en]

yę-                   feminine-zoic singular aspect – it + verb root – to be

-hę-                  habitual aspect

                      past aspect suffix

 

heyehtak               I used to go to such a place

[heh-yeh-tahk]

he-                   translocative – away

-y-                    1st person singular agent – I

-e-                    verb root – to go

-ht-                  causative root suffix

-a-                    habitual aspect

-k[2]               past aspect suffix

 

With the Purposive

uˀngyandihtandek         She was taking a long time.

[oo-oon-gyan-deeh-tan-dehk]

u-                                 feminine-zoic singular patient – she

-ˀngyandi-                    verb root – to be a long time

-ht-                               causative root suffix

-and-                            dislocative root suffix

-e                                 purposive aspect

-k                                 past aspect suffix

 

 

[1] Although the noun root for ‘bone’ belongs to the consonant conjugation, the initial -y- has been dropped.

[2] This is the form that the habitual and the past take with the causative root suffix.

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