stand

Stand

The fundamental rule, with very, very few exceptions is the if a noun root is incorporated into the verb, then the verb root -ut- and if there is no noun root incorporated, the verb root is -t-.

-ut-

 

kyuhšidut    Where a stump stands

[kyooh-shee-doot]

ky-       cislocative

-u-        feminine-zoic singular patient – it

-hšid-   noun root – stump

-ut       verb root – stand + stative aspect

 

kyunǫtut    Where a hill or mountain stands

[kyoo-non-toot]

ky-       cislocative

-u-        feminine-zoic patient – it

-nǫt-     noun root – hill, mountain

-ut       verb root – stand + stative aspect

 

yarendut      It is a (standing) pile of wood.

[yah-ren-doot]

ya-       feminine-zoic singular agent – it

-rend-   noun root – pile of wood

-ut        verb root – stand + stative aspect

 

yaętutǫnyǫˀ Many sticks are standing.

[yah-en-ton-yon-on]

ya-       feminine-zoic singular agent – it

-ęt-       noun root – stick, sticks

-ut-      verb root – stand

-ǫnyǫ-  distributive root suffix

-ˀ          stative aspect

 

hundatrędut        They (m) are singing.

[hund-at-ren-doot]

hund-               masculine plural patient – they (m)

-at-                   semi-reflexive

-ręd-                 noun root – song, prayer

-ut                   verb root – stand + stative aspect

 

sasatręndutąˀndah  Come sing again.

[sah-sah-tren-doot-an-an-dah]

sa-        repetitive

-s-        imperative + 2nd person singular agent – you

-at-       semi-reflexive

-ręnd-   noun root – song, prayer

-ut-      verb root

-ąˀn-     inchoative root suffix

-d-        dislocative root suffix

-ah       imperative aspect

 

ehažahšut              He will stick out his arm.

[eh-hah-zhah-shoot]

e-         future

-ha-      masculine singular agent – he

-žahš-   noun root – arm

-ut       verb root – stand + punctual aspect

 

utayumęndut         They (ind) stood their words, voices, spoke out.

[oo-tah-yoo-men-doot]

u-                     factual

-t-                     dualic

-a-                    factual

-yu-                  indefinite agent – they (ind)

-męnd-             noun root – word, voice

-ut                   verb – stand + punctual aspect

 

yatsirut                  It is a standing plug, blockage.

[yah-tsee-root]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent – it

-tsir-                 noun root – plug

-ut                    verb root – stand + stative aspect

 

ahatsirutawaˀ         He uncorked, unplugged it.

[ah-hah-tsee-roo-tah-wah-ah]

a-                     factual

-ha-                  masculine singular agent – he

-tsir-                 noun root – plug

-ut-                  verb root – stand

-awa-               undoer root suffix

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

 

ehšihǫhrutawaˀ      You (s) will pull out the feathers.

[eh-shee-honh-roo-taj-wah-ah]

e-                     future

-hši-                 2nd person singular agent – you (s)

-hǫhr-              noun root – feather, feathers.

-ut-                  verb root – stand

-awa-               undoer root suffix

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

 

aˀyǫmąkǫhšutahs             I stick my face at you, invite you.

[ah-ah-yon-man-konh-shoo-tahs]

aˀ-                    factual

-yǫm-               1st person singular agent + 2nd person singular patient – I – you

-ąk-                  semi-reflexive

-onhš-              noun root – face

-ut-                  verb root – stand

-ahs                  dative root suffix + punctual aspect

 

-t-

Note the use of the dualic with this verb root which it shares with other verb roots having a meaning related to using two legs.  The pronominal prefixes for the masculine and feminine plurals are irregular in that they take the e- conjugation form rather than the expected consonant conjugation form (see Potier 1920:356).

 

tehat                    He is standing.

[teh-haht]

te-                    dualic

-ha-                  masculine singular agent – he

-t                      verb root – stand + stative aspect

 

tehendat                They (m) are standing.

[teh-hen-daht]

te-                    dualic

henda-             masculine plural agent – they (m)

-t                      verb root – stand + stative aspect

 

tewendat              They (f) are standing.

[teh-wen-daht]

tew-                 dualic

-enda-              feminine-zoic plural agent – they (f)

-t-                    verb root – stand + stative aspect

 

 

 

 

 

 

This entry was posted in Language. Bookmark the permalink.

Comments are closed.