The Inchoative in Wyandot

Inchoative Root Suffix

Words of the Huron, Steckley 2007:10

“The inchoative is a root suffix that adds the meaning or sense of ‘coming into being’ to a verb root…Typically, it does not so much take an independent form as it affects the aspect for that follows it.’

It shares forms with the dative, so it is difficult sometimes to know which is being used.  Only the meaning can give a good clue: to dawn, to become night, to find., to be poor, to be evident, to be afraid, to grow, to happen, to fall, to go out and to satiate.

With the Punctual – -ha- or -hą- (after a nasal vowel)

aˀurhęhąˀ                      Day has dawned.

[ah-ah-oo-rhen-han-an]

aˀ-                                factual modal

-u-                                feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-rhę-                             verb root ‘to dawn’

-hą-                             inchoative root suffix

-ˀ                                  punctual aspect

ayuˀrah                         It became night.

[ah-yoo-oo-rah]

ay-                               factual

-u-                                feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ˀra-                              verb root ‘to become night’

-h                                 inchoative root suffix + punctual aspect

ažaˀturęhaˀ                      I have found him.

[ah-zhah-ah-too-ren-hah-ah]

a-     factual

-ž-     1st person singular agent + masculine singular patient ‘I to him’

-aˀt-   noun root ‘body’

-urę- verb root ‘to find’

-ha-   inchoative root suffix

-ˀ         punctual aspect

ahaesahaˀ                        He is in a poor state, is a widower.

[ah-hah-eh-sah-hah-ah]

a-                                 factual

-ha-                              masculine singular agent ‘he’

-esa-                             verb root ‘to be poor’

-ha-                             inchoative root suffix

-ˀ                                  punctual aspect

awahętehaˀ            It became evident to her; she came to know.

[ah-wah-hen-teh-hah-ah]

aw-           factual

-ahęte-     feminine-zoic singular agent ‘she’ + verb root ‘to be evident’

-ha-                 inchoative root suffix

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

auhkerǫhąˀ           She became afraid, is afraid.

[ah-oo-keh-ron-han-an]

a-                     factual

-u-                    feminine-zoic singular patient ‘she’

-hkerǫ-             verb root ‘to be afraid’

-hą-                 inchoative root suffix

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

With the Stativeˀnd-

hutižeˀsaˀndi          They (m) are in a poor state, are orphans.

[hoo-tee-zheh-eh-sah-an-dee]

hutiž-               masculine plural patient ‘they (m)’

-eˀsa-                verb root ‘to be in a poor state’

-ˀnd-                inchoative root suffix

-i                      stative aspect

andaˀuraˀndiˀ         I have the ability.

[an-dah-ah-oo-rah-an-dee-ee]

a-                     1st person singular patient ‘I’

-ndaˀura-          verb root ‘to have ability, power’

-ˀnd-                inchoative root suffix

-iˀ                     stative aspect

hažayęndiˀ            They (ind) go out.

[hah-zhah-yen-dee-ee]

haž-                 indefinite agent ‘they (ind)’

-ayę-                verb root ‘to go out’

-nd-                 inchoative root

-iˀ                     stative aspect

Habitual -(h)(a)(՚)-

yakyesaˀs             It is easy for me.

[yah-kyeh-sah-ahs]

y-                     1st person singular agent ‘me’

-aky-                semi-reflexive voice

-es-                  verb root ‘to be easy’

-aˀ-                   inchoative root suffix

-s                     habitual aspect

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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