Three Verbs ‘to say’ in Wyandot

The Three Verbs ‘To Say’

There are three verb roots that mean ‘to say’.    Each one belongs to a different conjugation (determined by the form the pronominal prefixes take). Which one you use depends on what aspect the verb takes.  All forms of the verb only take a subject expressed through an agent.  Or patient.  And they do not incorporate any nouns.  They are simple verbs.

Verb Root:             -(y)ęhąǫ- or -ihǫ-

Conjugation          i-/yę

 Aspects:               punctual and imperative

Subject                 agent

Punctual

Factual Modal

aˀihǫˀ           I said.  I just said.

[ah-ah-ee-hon-on]

aˀ-        factual

-ihǫ-     1st person agent ‘I’ + verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          punctual aspect

ahšihǫˀ        You (s) said.  You just said.

[ah-shee-hon-on]

a-         factual

-hš-      2nd person singular agent ‘you’

-ihǫ-     verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          punctual aspect

aˀyęhąǫˀ      She just said.

[ah-ah-yen-hah-on-on]

aˀ-        factual

-yęhąǫ- feminine-zoic singular agent ‘she’ + verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          punctual aspect

aˀyęhąǫˀ       aˀseh            She just said, “Go, go away”

[ah-ah-seh]

aˀseh       Go away

aˀ-        translocative

-s-        imperative + 2nd person singular agent ‘you’

-e-        verb root ‘to go’

-h         imperative aspect

ahęhąǫˀ       He said. He just said.

[ah-en-han-on-on]

  • factual

-h-        masculine singular agent ‘he’

-ęhąǫ- verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          punctual aspect

aˀkwęhąǫˀ    We (inc) said, just said. [talking to someone who said the same thing]

[ah-ah-kwen-han-on-on]

aˀ-        factual

-kw-     1st person inclusive plural agent ‘we (n)’

-ęhąǫ-  verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          punctual aspect

aˀamęhąǫˀ    We (x) said [talking to a person who was not talking]

[ah-ah-ah-men-han-on-on]

aˀ-        factual

-am-     1st person exclusive plural agent ‘we (x)’

-ęhąǫ- verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          punctual aspect

aˀskwęhąǫˀ  You (pl) said

[ah-ah-skwen-han-on-on]

aˀ-        factual

-skw-   2nd person plural agent ‘you (p)

-ęhąǫ-  verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          punctual aspect

aˀmęˀndihǫˀ They (f) said.

[ah-ah-men-en-dee-on-on ]

aˀ-        factual

-męˀnd- feminine-zoic plural agent ‘they (f)’

-ihǫ-    verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          punctual aspect

ahendihǫˀ    They (m) said.

[ah-hen-dee-hon-on]

t-          factual

-hend-  masculine plural agent ‘they (m)’

-ihǫ-    verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          punctual aspect

aˀayęhąǫˀ     One or they (indefinite i.e.., ‘people’) said

[ah-ah-ah-yen-han-on-on]

aˀ-        factual

-ay-      indefinite agent ‘they or one’

-ęhąǫ- verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          punctual aspect

Future

eyihǫˀ                              I will say

[eh-yee-hon-on]

eihǫˀ                            You (s) will say.

[eh-shee-hon-on]

eyęhąǫˀ                           She will say

[eh-yen-han-on-on]

ehęhąǫˀ                          He will say

[eh-hen-han-on-on]

ekwęhąǫˀ                        We (n) will say (including the listener(s)).

[eh-kwen-han-on-on]

eawęhąǫˀ                        We (x) will say.

[eh-ah-weh-han-on-on]

emęndihǫˀ                      They will say.

[eh-men-dee-hon-on]

ehęndihǫˀ                      They (m) will say.

[eh-hen-dee-hon-on]

eayęhąǫˀ                         One (ind) will say, they (indefinite) will say.

[eh-yen-han-on-on]

Imperative

tsihǫˀ           Say it (speaking to one person)

[tsee-hon-on]

ts-        imperative + 2nd person singular agent ‘you (s)’

-ihǫ-    verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          imperative aspect

stihǫˀ           Say it (speaking to a group of people)

[stee-hon-on]

st-        imperative + 2nd person plural agent ‘you (plural)’

-ihǫ-    verb root ‘to say’

-ˀ          imperative aspect

Verb Root:             -atǫ-

Conjugation:         a-

Aspects:                habitual and purposive

Subject                 agent

Habitual

iyatǫh         I say (often)

[ee-yah-tonh]

i- partitive ‘such’

y-         1st person singular agent ‘I’

-atǫ-    verb root ‘to say’

-h         habitual aspect

išatǫh          You (s) say (often)

[ee-shah-tonh]

i- partitive ‘such’

š-         2nd person singular agent ‘you (singular)

-atǫ-    verb root ‘to say’

-h         habitual aspect

iwatǫh         She says (often).

[ee-wah-tonh]

ihatǫh          He says (often).

[ee-hah-tonh]

ikwatǫh       We (including the listener) say (often).

[ee-kwah-tonh]

awatǫh        We (excluding the listener) say (often).

[ah-wah-tonh]

iskwatǫh     You (plural) say.

itǫh          They (f) say.

[ee-yon-tonh]

Purposive

yatǫdeˀ       I am going to say.

[yah-ton-deh-eh]

y-         1st person singular ‘I’

-atǫ-    verb root ‘to say’

-deˀ      dislocative root suffix + purposive aspect

šatǫdeˀ         You (s) are going to say.

[shah-ton-deh-eh]

š-         2nd person singular agent ‘you (s)

-atǫ-    verb root ‘to say’

-deˀ      dislocative root suffix + purposive aspect

atǫdeˀ          She is going to say.

[ah-ton-deh-eh]

hatǫdeˀ        He is going to say.

[hah-ton-deh-eh]

kwatǫdeˀ     We (including listener(s)) are going to say.

[kwah-ton-deh-eh]

awatǫdeˀ     We (excluding listener(s)) are going to say.

[ah-wah-ton-deh-eh]

skwatǫdeˀ    You (plural) are going to say.

[skwah-ton-deh-eh]

tǫdeˀ        They (feminine) are going to say.

[yon-ton-deh-eh]

ǫtǫdeˀ          They (ind) are, someone is going to say.

[on-ton-deh-eh]

Verb Root:            -ę- (e- conjugation): stative aspect

Conjugation :         e-

Aspect                  stative

Subject                 patient

iwayęh        I am saying, I have said.

[ee-wah-yenh]

iw-       partitive ‘such’

-ay-      1st person singular patient ‘I’

-ę-        verb root ‘to say’

-h         stative aspect

isęh             You (s) are saying, have said.

[ee-senh]

i-          partitive ‘such’

-s-        2nd person singular patient ‘you (s)’

-ę-        verb root ‘to say’

-h         stative aspect

iyamęh        She is saying, has said.

[ee-yah-menh]

iy-        partitive ‘such’

-am-     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘she’

-ę-        verb root ‘to say’

-h         stative aspect

teˀamęh       She did not say.

[teh-eh-menh]

teˀ-       negative

-am-     feminine-zoic patient ‘she’

-ę-        verb root ‘to say’

-h-        stative aspect

ihamęh        He is saying, has said.

[ee-hah-menh]

i-          partitive ‘such’

-ham-   masculine singular patient ‘he’

-ę-        verb root ‘to say’

-h         stative aspect

tehamęh      He is not saying; he did not say.

[teh-hah-menh]

te-        negative

-ham-   masculine singular patient ‘he’

-ę-        verb root ‘to say’

-h         stative aspect

iǫmęh                   We are saying, have said.

[ee-on-menh]

iskwęh                  You (p) are saying, have said.

[ee-skwenh]

iyǫnęh                  They (f) are saying, have said.

[ee-yon-neh]

ihǫnęh                  They (m) are saying, have said.

[ee-hon-nenh]

 

ayęh                   Someone is saying, has said

[ee-zhah-yenh]

 

 

 

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