Time Terms in Wyandot

Time in Wyandotte

What Time Is It?

What time is it?  Where is the sun?

anęęˀ                    iyar

where?                  The sun is in such a position.    Where is the sun?

[an-nen-en-en]       [ee-yahr]

You use this noun plus verb combination to talk about hours:

ukwihstaˀe                       Metal is struck.

[oo-kweeh-stah-ah-eh]

u-                                 feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-k-                               semireflexive voice

wihst–                    noun root ‘metal, clock’

-aˀe                             verb root ‘to strike’  + stative aspect

The noun root -wihst- traditionally referred to fish scales and the hard skin of flint corn kernels.  After contact it referred to metal, clocks, and money.

Hours          Metal is struck       Time

skat             ukwista’e               Metal is struck once.  It is one o’clock.

teˀndih         teukwistaˀe            Metal is struck twice.  It is two o’clock.

te- dualic

ahšęhk         ukwistaˀe               Metal is struck three times.  It is three o’clock.

ndahk          ukwistaˀe               Metal is struck four times.  It is four o’clock.

uwiš            ukwistaˀe                Metal is struck five times.  It is five o’clock.

wažaˀ           ukwistaˀe               Metal is struck six times.  It is six o’clock.

tsutareˀ        ukwistaˀe               Metal is struck seven times.  It is seven o’clock.

aˀtere           ukwistaˀe               Metal is struck eight times.  It is eight o’clock.

ęˀtrǫˀ            ukwistaˀe               Metal is struck nine times.  It is nine o’clock.

ahsęh           ukwistaˀe               Metal is struck ten times.  It is ten o’clock.

skat iskare    ukwistaˀe               Metal is struck eleven times.  It is eleven o’clock.

iskare           It adds it (to ten).

i-          partitive ‘such’

-s-        repetitive

-ka-     feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-re       verb root ‘to be added to’ + stative aspect

teˀndih teskare ukwistaˀe            Metal is struck twelve times.  It is twelve o’clock.

teskare         It adds two (to ten).

[teh-skah-reh]

te-        dualic

-s-        repetitive

-ka-     feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-re       verb root ‘to be added to’ + stative aspect

Hours Plus Minutes

skat    ukwistaˀe     ahsęh iskare           Metal is struck once, plus 10; 1:10

ahsęh           It is ten.

ahsę–   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + verb root ‘to be ten’

-h          stative aspect

skat    ukwistaˀe     tęndih tewahsęh teskare   Metal is struck once, plus 20; 1:20.

tewahsęh      It is two tens.

tew-     dualic

-ahsę–  feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + VR ‘to be ten.’

-h           stative aspect

skat    ukwistaˀe     ahšęhk iwahsęh iskare      Metal is struck once, plus 30; 1:30

iwahsęh       It is such a number of tens.

iw-       partitive ‘such’

ahsę-  feminine-zoic singular agent + verb root ‘to be ten.’

-h          stative aspect

skat    ukwistaˀe     ndahk iwahsęh iskare       Metal is struck once, plus 40; 1:40             skat    ukwistaˀe     uwiš iwahsęh iskare         Metal is struck once, plus 50; 1:5

Day -ęt-

Tuh    imętayeh                         How many days is it?

[ee-mentah-yeh]     -im-      partitive

-ęt-      feminine-zoic singular agent + noun root ‘day’

-a-       noun suffix

-ye       verb root ‘it is such a number’

-h         stative aspect

ǫndaˀe         skwętat                  It is one day.

[skwen-tat]   skw-    repetitive

-ęt-      feminine-zoic singular agent  ‘it’ + noun root ‘day’

-a-       noun suffix

-t-        verb root ‘to be one’ + stative aspect

ǫndaˀe         temętayeh              It is two days.

[teh-men-taj-yeh]    tem-     dualic

-ęt-      feminine-zoic singular agent + noun root‘day’

-a-       noun suffix

-ye-      verb root ‘to number’

-h         stative aspect

ahšęhk         imętayeh                It is three days

[ee-men-tah-yeh]

im- partitive ‘such’

ęt- femininse-zoic singular agent + noun root ‘day’

-aye- vr ‘to number’

-h

ǫndaˀe         aˀtemętaye    every day

[ah-ah-teh-men-tah-yeh

aˀ-        translocative

-tem-    dualic

-ęt-      feminine-zoic singular agent + noun root ‘day’

-a-       noun suffix

-ye-      verb root ‘to number’

-h         stative aspect

amętatuyehti It is a straight, designated, holy day: Sunday.

[ah-men-tah-too-yeh-tee]

am-                  feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ęt-                  noun root, ‘day’

-a-                   noun suffix

-tuye-              verb root, ‘to be straight’

-ht-                  causative root suffix

-i                      stative aspect

amętęhąǫ                 It carries the day; it is continual; continually.

[ah-men-ten-han-on]

am-                  feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

– ęt-                 noun root, ‘day’

-ęhaǫ               verb root ‘to carry, bring, take’ + stative aspect

Night

Verb Root -ara-

surawe                  It is still night.  It is morning.

[soo-rah-weh]

s-         repetitive ‘still’

-u[1]–      feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ra-      verb root ‘to be night’

-w-       transitive root suffix

-eh       stative aspect

 

kyuˀrąndih             It is when it has become night.

[kyoo-oo-ran-deeh]

ky-       cislocative ‘where, when’

-uˀ-      feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-rą-      verb root ‘to be night’

-nd-     inchoative root suffix

-ih        stative aspect

Noun Root-ahsǫt-

ahsǫtaˀ                  night

[ah-son-tah-ah]

ahsǫt–              feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + noun root ‘night’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

ahsǫtęhąǫˀ             all night

ah-son-ten-han-on-on]

ahsǫt-              feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + nr ‘night’

-ęhąǫ-            verb root ‘to bring, take, bear’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

ǫndaˀe         tsahsǫtat                It is one night.

[tsah-son-tat]         ts-        repetitive

-ahsǫt- feminine-zoic singular agent  ‘it’ + noun root                                                                    ‘night’

-a-       noun suffix

-t-        verb root ‘to be one’ + stative aspect

ǫndaˀe         tewahsǫtayeh                  It is two days.

[teh-men-taj-yeh]    tem-     dualic

-ahsǫt- feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + noun root‘                                                                     ‘night’

-a-       noun suffix

-ye-      verb root ‘to number’

-h         stative aspect

Seasons

There is no word that means ‘season’, but there are words for the four seasons.

Spring -yęr-

uyęraˀ                         spring

[oo-yen-rah-ah]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-yęr-                noun root, ‘spring’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

tsuyęrǫˀ                     Again spring arrives: next spring.

[tsoo-yen-ron-on]

ts-                    repetitive

-u-                   feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-yęr-                noun root, ‘spring’

ǫ                    verb root, ‘to arrive’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

uyęrandustiˀ             It is a cold spring.

[oo-yen-ran-doo-stee-ee]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-yęr-                noun root, ‘spring’

-a-                   noun suffix

-ndust- verb root, ‘to be cold’

-iˀ                     stative

uyęrandawęˀ          It is a mild, warm spring

[oo-yen-ran-dah-wen-en]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-yęr-                noun root, ‘spring’

-a-                   noun suffix

-ndawę-           verb root, ‘to be mild, warm’

-ˀ                      stative

Summer -yęt-  

uyętaˀ                         summer

[oo-yen-tah-ah]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-yęt-                noun root, ‘summer’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

uyętaˀyeh                   in summer

[oo-yen-tah-ah-yeh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-yęt-                noun root, ‘summer’

-aˀyeh               external locative noun suffix

uyętęhąǫˀ                  throughout the summer

[oo-yen-ten-han-on-on]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-yęt-                noun root, ‘summer’

ęhaǫ              verb root, ‘to carry, bring, take’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

Autumn -nędae

 

yanędae                     It is autumn (verb)

[yah-nen-dah-eh]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-nędae             verb root, ‘to be autumn’ + stative aspect

yanędaešraˀ              autumn (noun)

[yan-nen-dah-eh-shrah-ah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-nędae-            verb root, ‘to be autumn’

-šr-                  nominalizer

-aˀ                    noun suffix

skanędaešrǫˀ              Again it is autumn.

[skah-nen-dah-eh-shron-on]

s-                     repetitive

-ka-                 feminine-zoic singular agent

-nędae-            verb root, ‘to be autumn’

-šr-                  nominalizer

ǫ-                    verb root, ‘to arrive’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

Winter -uhšr-

uhšraˀ                         winter

[ooh-shrah-ah]

-uhšr-               feminine-zoic singular agent + noun root, ‘winter’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

suhšrat                     It is one winter

[sooh-shrat]

s-                     repetitive

-uhšr-               feminine-zoic singular agent + noun root, ‘winter’

-a-                   noun suffix

-t-                    verb root, ‘to be one’ + stative

tewuhšrayeh             It is two winters.

[teh-wooh-shrah-yeh]

tew-                 dualic

-uhšr-               feminine-zoic singular agent + noun root, ‘winter’

-a-                   noun suffix

-ye-                  verb root, ‘to number’

-h                     stative aspect

yuhšrat                       It is winter.

[yooh-shrat]

y-                     partitive ‘such’

-uhšr-               feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + noun root, ‘winter’

-a-                   noun suffix

-t-                    verb root, ‘to be inside’ (?) + stative aspect

Year

sayaˀndegyaˀ          It is again overcome, a year, another year.

[sah-yah-an-deh-gyah-ah]

s-                     repetitive

-a-                   factual

-ya-                  feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

ˀndegy-           verb root ‘to overcome’

-aˀ                    punctual aspect

aˀteyaˀndenyǫšrayeh          It is every year.

[ah-ah-teh-yah-ahn-deh-nyan-shrah-yeh]

  • translocative

-te-                  dualic

-ya-                  feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

ˀndegyǫ–        verb root, ‘to overcome’

-šr-                  nominalizer

-a-                   noun suffix

-ye-                  verb root, ‘to number’

-h                     stative aspect

skaˀndenyǫšrat      It is one year.

[skahan-deh-nyon-shrat]

s-                     repetitive

-ka-                 feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-ndenyǫ-          verb root, ‘to overcome’

-šr-                  nominalizer

-a-                   noun suffx

-t-                    verb root, ‘to be one’ + stative aspect

teyaˀndenyǫšrayeh           It is two years, two times of overcoming.

[teh-yah-an-deh-nyǫ-shrah-yeh]

te-                    dualic

-ya-                  feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

ˀndegyǫ         verb root, ‘to overcome’

-šr-                  nominalizer

-a-                   noun suffix

-ye-                  verb root, ‘to number’

-h                     stative aspect

iyaˀndenyǫšrayeh    It is such a number of years.

[ee-yah-an-den-yon-shrah-yeh]

  • partitive ‘such’

-ya-                  feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

ˀndegyǫ–        verb root, ‘to overcome’

-šr-                  nominalizer

-a-                   noun suffix

-ye-                  verb root, ‘to number’

-h                     stative aspect

Questions Regarding Seasons

Translate the following from Wyandot into English

1)skanędaešrat____________________________________________________

2) teyanędaešrayeh _________________________________________________

3)uhšręhaǫˀ_____________________________________________________

4) uhšrandawęˀ___________________________________________________

5)uyętandustiˀ____________________________________________________

 

 

 

[1] With a- conjugation verbs and nouns the –u- of the feminine-zoic singular patient replaces the a-.

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