Trading, Buying and Selling

Trading, Buying and Selling

To Desire

One verb root -ndinǫ- means ‘to desire’, referring to the wishes expressed by familiar spirits and in dreams.  This is the verb root that can be used to express the meanings of trading, buying and selling.

undinǫhs    She desires, has dream visions.

[oon-dee-nonhs]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient – she

-ndinǫ-             verb root – to desire

-hs                   habitual aspect

 

Adding the causative-instrumental -st-

There are no verbs that specifically mean ‘to buy’ or  ‘to sell.’  Adding the causative-instrumental moves the verb root meaning ‘to desire’ to acting upon it by acquiring something or giving something in trade.  This gets translated into ‘trade, buy or sell.’  There is some inconsistency in the Narratives, which I believe relates to difficulties with a final   -st. Following what Potier has in his mid-18th century dictionary (Potier 1920:292), my interpretation of this verb involves a consistency of use of the causative-instrumental root suffix.

ahšatęndinǫhst[1]             You would trade, deal, buy, sell for it.

[ah-sha-ten-dee-nohst]

a-                                 optative

-hš-                              2nd person singular agent – you

-atę-                             semi-reflexive voice

-ndinǫ                          verb root – to desire

-ht                                causative-instrumental root suffix + punctual aspect

 

satędinǫhst                    Trade, sell it.

[sah-ten-dee-nonhst]

s-                                 imperative + 2nd person singular agent – you

-ate-                             semi-reflexive voice

-ndinǫ-                         verb root – to desire

-hst                              causative-instrumental root suffix + imperative aspect

satędinǫhst                               de        kyutǫhskwerǫht

sell it!                                      the       cow

ahšatęndinǫhst                You traded for, bought it.

[ah-shah-ten-dee-nonhst]

a-                                 factual

-hš-                              2nd person singular agent

-atę-                             semi-reflexive voice

-ndinǫ-                         verb root – to desire

-hst                              causative-instrumental root suffix + punctual aspect

 

kužuh                          ahšatęndinǫhst                         Did you trade for, buy something?

Yes-no question           you traded for, bought

[1] The initial vowel -a- with the optative is longer than it is with the factual.

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