Wyandot Noun Roots for the Upper Body

Wyandot Noun Roots for the Upper Body

All these noun roots are consonant stem conjugation except for two that are specified as different.

Arm –žahš–  

yažahšaˀ                                arm (including that of a corn plant), her arm

[yah-zhah-shah-ah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it she, her’

žahš              noun root, ‘arm’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

hažahšaˀ                          His arm

[hah-zhah-shah-ah]

ha-                   masculine singular agent ‘he’

žahš              noun root, ‘arm’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

ehažahšut                        He will stick his arm out.

[eh-hah-zhah-suoot]

e-                     future prefix

-ha-                  masculine singular agent ‘he, his’

žahš–              noun root, ‘arm’

-ut-                  verb root ‘to stand’ + punctual prefix

tehažahšuwanęh               He has two large arms

[teh-hah-zhah-shoo-wan-nenh]

te-                    dualic

-ha-                  masculine singular agent ‘he, his’

žahš              noun root, ‘arm’

-uwanę-           verb root, ‘to be large’

-h                     stative aspect

Armpit -tǫr-

utǫraˀ                                     armpit, her armpit

[oo-ton-rah-ah]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it, her’

-tǫr-                 noun root, ‘armpit’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

satǫraˀ                                    your armpit

[sah-ton-rah-ah]

sa-                   2nd person singular patient ‘your’

-tǫr–                 noun root, ‘armpit’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

Shoulder -nęhš

yanęhšaˀ                              shoulder, her shoulder

[yah-nenh-shah-ah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent

-nęhš-              noun root, ‘shoulder’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

yenęhšaˀ                                 my shoulder

[yeh-nenh-shah-ah]

ye-                   1st person singular agent ‘my’

-nęhš-           noun root, ‘shoulder’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

Elbow žuš

yažušaˀ                                  elbow, her elbow

[yah-zhoo-shah-ah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it, her’

žuš–                noun root, ‘elbow’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

hažušaˀ                                    his elbow

[hah-zoo-shah-ah]

ha-                   masculine singular agent ‘his’

žuš–                noun root, ‘elbow’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

šežušaˀ                            your elbow (a Wyandot tongue-twister)

[sheh-zhoo-shah-ah]

še-                   2nd person singular agent

žuš–                noun root, ‘elbow’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

Hand/Palm  -yǫres-

yayǫresaˀ                        palm, hand, her palm, her hand

[yah-yon-reh-sah-ah]

ya-                               feminine-zoic agent, ‘it’ or ‘her’

-yǫres-                       noun root, ‘palm, hand’

-aˀ                                 noun suffix

yayǫresaˀye                            on the palm, her palm, hand, her hand

[yah-yon-reh-sah-ah-yeh]

ya-                               feminine-zoic singular agent, ‘it’ or ‘her’

-yǫres-                       noun root, ‘palm, hand’

-aˀye                            external locative noun suffix

yayǫresanhtǫtraˀ                   It joins the hand; the wrist.

[yah-yon-re-sanh-ton-tra-ah]

ya-                                feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-yǫres-                      noun root ‘hand’

-a-                               noun suffix

-nhtǫtra-                   verb root ‘to join’

-ˀ                                  stative aspect

Finger, ring -ˀngy-

yaˀngyaˀ                                  finger, her finger, fingers, her fingers

[yah-an-gyah-ah]

ya-                               feminine-zoic singular agent, ‘it’ or ‘her’

-ˀngy-                          noun root, ‘finger, fingers, ring’

-aˀ                                noun suffix

yaˀngyaˀye                             on her finger

[yan-an-gyah-ah-yeh]

ya-                               feminine-zoic singular agent ‘her’

-ˀngy-                         noun root, ‘finger’

-aˀye                            external locative noun suffix

ayeˀngyamęh                   my finger, my ring

[ah-yen-en-gyah-menh]

aye-                             1st person singular patient ‘my’

-ˀngy-                        noun root, ‘finger, ring’

-a-                               noun suffix

-mę-                           verb root ‘to have’

-h                                 stative aspect

Metaphors With Fingers

ahuˀngyarahs                          His fingers were with him.  He helped him                              [ah-hoo-oon-gyah-rahs]

a-                                  factual

-hu-                              masculine singular agent + singular patient  ’he to him‘

             -ˀngy-                           noun root ‘finger’

-a-                               noun suffix

-ra-                              verb root ‘to be with’

-hs                               dative root suffix + punctual aspect

sahatiˀngyayęhąˀ                    Their (m) fingers have gone out. They have escaped

[sah-hah-tee-een-gyah-yen-han-an]

s-                                repetitive

-a-                               factual

-hati-                            masculine plural agent ’they (m)‘

           -ˀngy-                           noun root ‘finger’

-ayę                             verb root ‘to go out’

-hą-ˀ                             inchoative root suffix

-ˀ                                   punctual aspect

Thumb -nyǫkar-

unyǫkaraˀ                               thumb

[oon-yon-kah-rah-ah]

u-                                 feminine-zoic patient ‘it’

-nyǫkar-                   noun root ‘thumb’

-aˀ                                noun suffix

unyǫkaruyęnęh                under one’s, her thumb

[oon-yonkah-roo-yen-neh]

u-                                 feminine-zoic singular patient ‘one’s, her’

-nyǫkar-                  noun root ‘thumb’

-uyęnę-                      verb root ‘to be under’

-h                                 stative aspect

Fingernail -ˀeht-

uˀehtaˀ                                 (her) fingernail(s), toenail(s), talon(s), claw(s)

[oo-oo-eh-tah-ah]

u-                                 feminine-zoic singular patient, ‘it, her’

-ˀeht-                           noun root, ‘fingernail’

-aˀ                                noun suffix

uˀehtetsiˀs                        Her fingernails are long; her long fingernails.

[oo-oo-eh-teh-tsee-ees]

u-                                 feminine-zoic singular patient ‘her’

-ˀeht-                           noun root, ‘fingernail’

-ets-                             verb ‘to be long’

-i-                                stative aspect

-ˀs                                plural aspect suffix

Back ˀnǫm-

yaˀnǫmaˀ                                  back, her back

[yah-ah-non-mah-ah]

ya-                               feminine-zoic singular agent, ‘it’ or ‘her’

ˀnǫm-                         noun root, ‘back’

-aˀ                                noun suffix

yaˀnǫmaˀyeh                          on top of her, at her back

[yah-ah-non-mah-ah-yeh]

ya-                               feminine-zoic singular agent ‘her’

ˀnǫm-                      noun root, ‘back’

-aˀyeh                        external locative noun suffix

Backbone. Spine: –haęhš

hahaęhšaˀ                              his spine, backbone

[hah-hah-enh-shah-ah]

ha-                               masculine singular agent ‘his’

-haęhš–                     noun root ‘spine, backbone’

-aˀ                                noun suffix

hahaęhšuwanęh               He has a large backbone, spine.

[hah-hah-enh-shoo-wan-nenh]

ha-                                masculine singular agent ‘he’

-haęhš–                       noun root ‘spine, backbone’

-uwanę                         verb root ‘to be large’

-h                                  stative aspect

Rib(s) -yęhs/ihs- (yen-/i-conjugation)

yęhsaˀ                                              rib(s), her rib(s)

[yen-hsah-ah]

yęhs-                         feminine-zoic singular agent, ‘it’ or ‘her’ + noun root, ‘rib, ribs’

-aˀ                                noun suffix

šihsaˀye                                  on your ribs

[shee-hsah-ah-yeh]

š-                                 2nd  person singular agent ‘your’

         -ihs-                             noun root rib(s}

-aˀye                               external locative noun suffix

hęsayažas                             He eats ribs (often).

[hensah-yah-zhahs]

h-                                 masculine singular agent ‘he’

-ęhs-                            noun root ‘rib, ribs’

-a-                               noun suffix

-yaža-                          verb root ‘to eat’

-s                                 habitual aspect

Heart  -atǫtehšr- (a- conjugation)

utǫtehšraˀ                              heart, her heart

[oo-ton-teh-shrah-ah]

u-                                 feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it, her’

-tǫtehšr-                    noun root, ‘heart’

-aˀ                                 noun suffix

ayatǫtehšraˀye                 on my heart

[yah-ton-teh-shrah-ah-yeh

y-                                 1st person singular patient ‘my’

-atǫtehšr-                 noun root, ‘heart’

-aˀye                            external locative noun suffix

Lungs – ˀndawa-

uˀndaˀwaˀ                            lung, lungs, her lung, her lungs[1]

[oo-oon-dah-ah-wah-ah]

u-                                 feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it, her’

ndaˀw-                    noun root, ‘lung’

-aˀ                                noun suffix

saˀndaˀwaˀ                              your lungs

[sah-an-dah-ah-wah-ah]

sa-                   2nd person singular patient ‘you’

ndaˀw-         noun root, ‘lungs’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

waist, stomach -nderaˀt-

yanderaˀtaˀ                           waist, stomach

[yan-deh-rah-ah-tah-ah]

ya-                               feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-nderaˀt-                   noun root ‘waist’

-aˀ                               noun suffix

hunderaˀtuwanęh    His waist is large.

[hoon-deh-rah-ah-too-wan-nenh]

hu-                               masculine singular patient ‘his’

-nderaˀt-                   noun root ‘waist, stomach’

`          -uwanę-                      verb root ‘to be large’

-h                                 stative aspect

Chest, Breast, Box -ˀahš-

uˀahšaˀ                                      her chest,  her breast, her chest

[oo-oo-ah-shah-ah]

u-                                 feminine-zoic singular patient, ‘her’

-ˀhš-                            noun root, ‘breast, chest’

-aˀ                                noun suffix

huˀahšetsih                             He has a long chest.

[hoo-oo-ah-sheh-tseeh]

hu-                               masculine singular patient ‘he’

-ˀhš-                             noun root, ‘breast, chest’

-ets-                             verb root ‘to be long’

-ih                                stative aspect

breast nǫrąhš-

unǫrąhšaˀ                               breast, her breast, milk

[oo-non-ranh-shah-ah]

u-                                 feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it, her’

nǫrąhš-                    noun root ‘breast’

-aˀ                                noun suffix

waist -nder-

yanderaˀ                          waist, body, shawl, her waist, her body

[yan-deh-rah-ah]

ya-                              feminine-zoic singular agent, ‘her, it’

-nder-                      noun root ‘waist, body’

-aˀ                                noun suffix

yanderih                          Her waist is full. She is pregnant.

[yan-deh-reeh]

ya-                               feminine-zoic singular agent ‘she, her’

-nder-                          noun root ‘waist, body’

-i-                                verb root ‘to be full’

-h                                 stative aspect

Translate the Following into English

 

  1. eyažahšut________________________________________________

 

2) hutǫraˀ___________________________________________________

 

3)  hanęhšaˀ__________________________________________________

 

4) yežušaˀ____________________________________________________

5) hayǫresaˀye________________________________________________

 

6) haˀngyaˀye_________________________________________________

 

7) sanyǫkaraˀ_________________________________________________

 

8) huˀehtetsiˀs_________________________________________________

 

9) ayeˀndaˀwaˀ_________________________________________________

10) huˀahšaˀ___________________________________________________

Answers

eyažahšut              She will stick out her arm.

hutǫraˀ                  his armpit

hanęhšaˀ                his shoulder

yežušaˀ                  my elbow

hayǫresaˀye           on his palm, his hand

haˀngyaˀye             on his finger

sanyǫkaraˀ             your thumb

huˀehtetsiˀs            His fingernails are long.

ayeˀndaˀwaˀ           my lungs

huˀahšaˀ                 his chest

[1] In some sources this is sometimes presented as meaning ‘liver.’ (see Barbeau 1960:273).

This entry was posted in Language. Bookmark the permalink.

Comments are closed.