Wyandot Use of the Dualic Prefix

The Dualic

The dualic is a prefix that regularly takes -te- (which it shares with the negative prefix) and -k- (which it shares with the cislocative prefix).  When it is used is a peculiar feature of Iroquoian verbs.  The categories I have used here are the main situations in which the dualic is used.

The bolded words are recorded.

Natural Twos

What I am calling  ‘natural twos’ are ones that someone unfamiliar with Wyandot would expect.

tęndih                             They are two (the word for the number two)

[ten-deeh]

tę-                   dualic

-nd-                 feminine-zoic dual agent

-i-                    verb root ‘to be two’

-h                     stative aspect

Teutrǫturęh                      A log is split in two (male name ‘Splitlog’).

[teh-oo-tron-too-tenh]

te-                    dualic

-u-                   feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-t-                    semi-reflexive voice

-rǫt-                 noun root ‘tree, log, pole’

-urę-                verb root ‘to be split in two’

-h                     stative aspect

Teyarǫtuyęh                    It is between the logs (male name ‘Between the Logs’).

[teh-yah-ron-too-yenh]

te-                    dualic

-ya-                  feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-rǫt-                 noun root ‘log, tree, pole’

-uyę-                verb root ‘to fork, divide, split’

-h                     stative aspect

tehutsiˀtut                            lynx (He has two standing blossoms, ref. to ear tufts)

[tee-hoo-tsee-ee-toot]

te-                                dualic

-hu-                              masculine singular patient, ‘he’

-tsiˀt-                            noun root, ‘blossom, flower’

-ut-                              verb root ‘to stand’ + stative aspect

akutaweh             I pressed, squeezed it.

[ah-koo-tah-weh]

a-                     factual

-k-                   dualic + 1st person singular agent

-utawe-            verb root ‘to squeeze’

-h                     punctual aspect

Involving Loud Expressions of the Mouth

tehahsękwahs                  He laments, cries out often.

[teh-hah-sen-kwahs]

te-                                dualic

-h-                               masculine singular agent ‘he’

-ahsękw-                     verb root ‘to lament, cry out’

-ahs                              habitual aspect

tewayastraˀkwaˀ               I will yawn.

[teh-wah-yah-strah-ah-kwah-ah]

tew-                             dualic + future

astraˀkwa-                    1st person singular agent ‘I’ + verb root ‘to yawn’

-ˀ                                  punctual aspect

tehatsǫt                          He will sneeze.

[teh-hah-tsont]

te-                                dualic + future

-h-                               masculine singular agent ‘he’

-atsǫt-                         verb root ‘to sneeze’ + punctual aspect

tewayehęrehtih                 I have shouted, yelled.

tew-                 dualic

-aye-                1st person singular patient ‘I’

-hęre-               verb root ‘to shout out’

-ht-                  causative root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

ekwatingyah                  They (f) will howl.

[eh-kwah-teen-gyah]

e-                     future

-kw-                dualic

-ati-                  feminine-zoic plural agent ‘they (f)

-ngya-              verb root ‘to howl’

-h                     punctual aspect

Involving the Feet

Tehurahtatih        He is running. (male Wolf clan name)

[teh-hoo-rah-tah-teeh]

te-                    dualic

-hu-                  masculine singular patient ‘he’

            –rahtat-            verb root ‘to run’

-ih                    stative aspect

tehat                     He is standing.

[teh-haht]

te-                    dualic

-ha-                  masculine singular agent ‘he’

-t                      verb root ‘to stand’ + stative aspect

utawarahšękwaˀ     She kicked.

[oo-tah-wah-rah-shen-kwah-ah]

u-                     factual

-t-                    dualic

-aw-                 factual

-arahšęnkw-     feminine-zoic singular agent ‘she’ +verb root ‘to kick’

-aˀ                    punctual aspect

tewayęndaˀskwatih           I have jumped

[teh-wah-yen-dah-ah-skwah-teeh]

tew–                 dualic

-ayę-                1st person singular patient ‘I’

-ndaˀskwat-     verb root ‘to jump’

-ih                    stative aspect

Involving the Eyes[1]

tehayąndraˀ                   He is looking at her

[teh-hah-yan-drah-ah]

te-                    dualic

-ha-                  masculine singular agent + feminine-zoic patient (he-her)

-yąndra-           verb root ‘to look at’

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

Tayeyąndrak          Look at me! (Male Prairie Turtle name)

[tah-yen-yan-drahk]

            t-                      dualic + imperative

-aye-                1st person singular patient ‘me’

-yąndra-          verb root ‘to look at’

-k                     imperative aspect

tehunęraęˀ              He is watching for it.

[teh-hoo-nen-rah-en-en]

te-                    dualic

-hu-                  masculine singular patient ‘he’

-nęraę-             verb root ‘to watch for ‘

-ˀ                        stative aspect

Uncertainty

teyatǫrǫtǫh            I am anxious.

[teh-yah-ton-ron-tonh]

te-                   dualic

-y-                   1st person singular agent ‘I’

-atǫrǫtǫ-          verb root ‘to be anxious’

-h                     stative aspect

teskwatędaˀkwaˀ    You (p) will hunt .

[teh-skwah-ten-dah-ah-kwah-ah]

te–                   dualic + future

-skw-             2nd person plural agent ‘you’

-ndahkwa-       verb root ‘to hunt’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

tehužai                 He is playing (a game).

[teh-hoo-zhah-ee]

te-                    dualic

-hu-                  masculine singular patient ‘he’

-ža-                  verb root ‘to play’

-i                      stative aspect

[1] Interestingly, this does not occur with the verb ‘to see’.

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