tell

Tell -ndutǫ-

 

The often-used verb root -ndutǫ- ‘tell’ regularly takes the semi-reflexive voice and has a subject (the teller) and an object (the one being told).

 

ahatęndutǫh        He told her.

[ah-hah-ten-doo-tonh]

a-                     factual

-h-                    masculine singular agent + feminine-zoic singular patient – he to her

-atę-                 semi-reflexive voice

-ndutǫ–             verb root – tell

-h                     punctual aspect

 

Typically identification of the subject comes before the verb and of the one being told after the verb.

 

nd        anariskwa        ahutęndutǫdihaˀ           de        tsamęhuhiˀ

the       wolf                 he went to tell  him     the       eagle

 

The wolf went to tell the eagle.

 

ahutęndutǫdihaˀ    He went to tell him.

[ah-hoo-ten-doo-ton-dee-hah-ah]

a-                     factual

-hu-                  masculine singular agent + masculine singular patient – he – him

-tę-                   semi-reflexive voice

-ndutǫ-             verb root – tell

-di                    dative root suffix

-h-                    dislocative root suffix

-aˀ                    punctual aspect

 

 

aˀutęndutǫh                  d’         uhšutaˀ                                     She told her grandmother.

she told her                  who     she is grandparent to her

 

aˀutęndutǫh             She told her.

aˀ-                    factual

-u-                    feminine-zoic singular agent + feminine-zoic singular patient – she –                                          her

-tę-                   semi-reflexive voice

-ndutǫ-             verb root – tell

-h                     punctual aspect

 

 

 

However, when there is a narrator talking about someone telling someone, and just mentions the teller, then the subject comes after the verb.

 

ežatęndutǫndihs          de        žatęnǫrǫˀ                      Your uncle will tell you

he will tell you            who     he is uncle to you

 

ežatęndutǫndihs    He will tell you

[eh-zhah-ten-doo-ton-deehs]

e-                     future

-ž-                    masculine singular agent + 2nd person singular patient – he – you

-atę-                 semi-reflexive voice

-ndutǫ-             verb root – tell

-ndi-                 inchoative root suffix

-hs                   dative root suffix + punctual aspect

 

With the imperative it takes forms such as the following:

 

satęndutǫndah     Go tell it!

[sah-ten-doo-ton-dah]

s-                     imperative + 2nd person singular agent – you

            -atę-                 semi-reflexive voice

-ndutǫ-             verb root –  tell

-d-                    dislocative root suffix

-ah                   imperative aspect

 

hešatęndutǫh       Tell him!

[heh-shah-ten-doo-tonh]

heš-                  imperative + 2nd person singular agent + masculine singular patient – you – him

-atę-                 semi-reflexive voice

-ndutǫ-             verb root –  tell

-h                     imperative aspect

 

           

 

 

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