At, On and In

On, At and In

One of these location indicators is a suffix; the other is a verb

 

On and At: External Locative Noun Suffix (elns)

It comes either after a noun root of a verb root with a stative aspect.

After a Noun Root

With a noun root the pronominal prefix taken is the patient.

ǫndesaˀyęˀ  on her lap

[on-deh-sah-ah-yen-en]

ǫ-         feminine-zoic singular patient – her

-ndes-  noun root – la

-aˀyęˀ   external locative noun suffix

 

ukažaˀyeh    on a wooden chip

[oo-kah-zhah-ah-yeh]

u-         feminine-zoic singular patient – it

-kaž-    noun root – wooden chip

-aˀyeh  external locative noun suffix

 

ayeˀnǫmąyehat my back

ah-[yeh-eh-non-man-yeh]

aye-     1st person singular patient – my

-ˀnǫm-  noun root – back

-ąyeh   external locative noun suffix

 

After a Stative Aspect

atuˀyeh       at where it is cold, the north

[ah-too-oo-yeh]

atu-      feminine-zoic singular agent – it + verb root – to be cold + stative aspect

-ˀyeh    external locative noun suffix

 

saˀndumędeh         at your mother’s

[sah-an-doo-men-deh]

sa-                    feminine-zoic singular agent – 2nd person singular patient – she – you

-ˀndumę-          verb root – to be mother to

-deh                 external locative noun suffix

 

He Walks on Water (male name)

amęˀyeh      on water

[ah-men-en-yeh]

am-      feminine-zoic singular patient – it

-ę-        verb root -to be water

-ˀ          stative aspect

-yeh     external locative noun suffix

amęˀyeh           ire                                He walks on water

on water          he walks

 

Verb Root – to be inside -ayǫ-

In this case we have a verb root and, despite the fact that it only takes the stative aspect, the agent form of the pronominal prefix is always used.

yanǫhskǫˀ   inside a house

[yan-onh-skon-on]

ya-       feminine-zoic singular agent – it

-nǫhs-  noun root – house

[1]kǫ-    verb root – to be inside

-ˀ          stative aspect

 

yasˀetayǫh   It is inside a gourd, a bottle.

[yah-seh-eh-tah-yonh]

ya-       feminine-zoic singular agent – it

-sˀet-    noun root – gourd, bottle

-ayǫ-    verb root – to be inside

-h         stative aspect

 

yarǫtayǫh    inside a log

[yah-ron-tah-yonh]

ya-       feminine-zoic singular agent – it

-rǫt-     noun root – tree, log

-ayǫ-    verb root – to be inside

-h         stative aspect

 

 

 

 

 

 

[1] When the -š- of ‘house’ meets with the -y- of the verb root ‘to be inside’, the result is an -s- followed by a -k-.

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