Kinship Terms in Wyandot

Kinship Terms

Kinship terms in Wyandotte are verbs.  There are no nouns for mother, father, sister brother, son or daughter.  And there are no separate possessives such as ‘my’, ‘your’, ‘his’ or ‘hers.’  The pronominal prefixes take care of that.  Pronominal prefixes belong to one of five conjugations: consonant (by far the most common one), a-stem, e-stem, yen-/i- stem and ǫ-/u- stem.  There are two grammatical players possible in each pronominal prefix, an agent (which is always a subject when it appears) and a patient (which is a subject when it appears by itself and is an object when it is combined with the agent).  A list of some of these pronominal prefixes appears at the end of this lesson.

Mother

There are two different verbs used for ‘to be mother to’ in Wyandot.  Both are consonant conjugation.  One, -nęˀ is used almost exclusively in addressing your mother.  The term of address has collapsed the pronominal prefix into a short form:

anęˀęh                             my mother, mom (used when speaking to her)

[ah-nen-nenh]

  • feminine-zoic (s) agent + 1st person (s) patient ‘she to me’

-nęˀ                             verb root ‘to be mother to’

-ęh                               stative aspect

The other verb root for mother is -nduˀmę-.  This is for referring to and talking about mothers.

anduˀmęh                             She is mother to me. She is my mother.

[ah-ndoo-oo-menh]

  • feminine-zoic (s) agent + 1st person (s) patient ‘she to me’

-nduˀmę                      verb root ‘to be mother to’

-h                                 stative aspect

unduˀmęh                              She is mother to her.  She is her mother.

[oo-ndoo-oo-mehn]

u-                                 feminine zoic (s) agent + feminine-zoic (s) patient ‘she to her’

-nduˀmę                      verb root  ‘to be mother to’

-h                                 stative aspect

sanduˀmęh                      She is mother to you; your mother.

[sah-ndoo-oo-menh]

sa-                               feminine-zoic (s) agent + 2nd person (s) patient ‘she to you’

nduˀmę                     verb root ‘to be mother to’

-h                                 stative aspect

With the addition of the causative-instrumental (ci) root suffix -hst-, we can talk about when mothers adopt children.

hunduˀmęˀahstih                  She adopted him as his mother; his adopted mother.

[hoo-ndoo-oo-men-en-ah-steeh]

hu-                               feminine-zoic (s) agent + masculine (s) patient ‘she to him’

-nduˀmę                      verb root ‘to be mother to’

-ˀahst-                          causative-instrumental

-ih                                stative aspect

yǫnduˀmęˀahstih                  I adopted you as your mother, I am your adopted mother.

[yon-ndoo-oo-men-en-ah-steeh]

yǫ-                               1st person (s) agent + 2nd person (s) patient ‘I to you’

-nduˀmę                      verb root ‘to be mother to’

-ˀahst-                          causative-instrumental

-ih                                stative aspect

Step-Mother

For the step-parent to step-child relationship -ndu- (consonant conjugation) is used.  It takes the diminutive (dm), which occurs with some kinship relationships and with some possessions.  It seems to be a form of endearment.

hunduˀah                               She is his step-parent; his step-mother.

[hoo-ndoo-oo-ah]

hu-                               feminine-zoic (s) agent + masculine (s) patient ‘she to him’

-ndu-                            verb root ‘to be step-parent to’

-ˀa                                stative aspect

-h                                 diminutive suffix

unduˀah                                 She is her step-parent; her step-mother.

[oo-ndoo-oo-ah]

u-                                 feminine-zoic (s) agent + feminine-zoic (s) patient ‘she to her’

-ndu-                            verb root ‘to be step-parent to’

-ˀa-                              stative aspect

-h                                 diminutive suffix

Father

The verb root for ‘to be a father to’ isˀistę (consonant conjugation).

aˀistęh                                  my father (used when speaking to him)

[ah-ah-yee-stenh]

haˀistęh                                He is father to me; my father

[ha-ah-yee-stenh]

ha-                               masculine (s) agent + 1st person (s) patient ‘he to me’

ˀistę–                           verb root ‘to be father to’

-h                                 stative aspect

huˀistęh                           He is father to him; his father

[hoo-oo-ee-stenh]

hu-                               masculine (s) agent + masculine (s) patient ‘he to him’

ˀistę–                           verb root ‘to be father to’

-h                                 stative aspect

sǫmaˀistęh                         He is father to us; our father

[son-mah-ah-ee-stenh]

sǫma-                           masculine (s) agent + 1st person plural patient ‘he to us’

ˀistę–                           verb root ‘to be father to’

-h                                 stative aspect

skwaˀistęh                       You are father to us (‘Our Father’ in the Lord’s Prayer)

[skwah-ah-ee-stenh]

skwa-                           2nd person (s) agent + 1st person plural patient ‘you to us’

ˀistę–                           verb root ‘to be father to’

-h                                 stative aspect

yaˀistęhšraˀ                           father, fatherhood (noun)

[yah-ah-ee-sten-shrah]

ya-                               feminine-zoic agent  ‘it’

ˀistę–                           verb root ‘to be father to’

-hšr-                             nominalizer

-aˀ                                noun suffix

huˀistęhšrawastih                 He is a good father.

[hoo-oo-ee-sten-shrah-wah-steeh]

hu-                               masculine (s) patient  ‘he’

ˀistę                          verb root ‘to be father to’

-hšr-                             nominalizer

-a                                 noun suffix

-wast-                          verb root ‘to be good, beautiful’

-ih                                stative aspect

Step-Father

žanduˀah                                He is your (s) step-father; he is step-parent to you.

[zhah-ndoo-oo-ah]

ža-                               masculine agent (s) + 2nd person (s) patient  ‘he to you (s)’

-ndu-                            verb root ‘to be step-parent to’

-ˀa-                              stative aspect

-h                                 diminutive suffix

handuˀah                               He is her step-father;  he is step-parent to her.

[hah-ndoo-oo-ah]

ha-                               masculine (s) agent + feminine-zoic (s) patient ‘he to her’

-ndu-                            verb root ‘to be step-parent to’

-ˀa-                              stative aspect

-h                                 diminutive suffix

Exercise: Mother and Father (answers at the end of the lesson)

  • She is his mother__________________________________________________________
  • She is your (singular) mother.________________________________________________
  • She is their (mixed) mother._________________________________________________
  • She is my adopted mother.___________________________________________________
  • I am her adopted mother.___________________________________________________
  • She is your stepmother._______________________________________________
  • Your (singular) father.____________________________________________________
  • Her father.____________________________________________________
  • His step-father.____________________________________________________
  • Our step-father.___________________________________________________

Child

The verb root -(ny)ę (consonant conjugation) means ‘to have as child’.  As with the previous kinship verbs, the parent is represented in the agent/subject role.  The child is represented by the patient/object role.

anyęˀah                      my child (daughter or son), addressing my child

[an-yen-en-ah]

  • ?

-nyę–                verb root ‘to have as child’

-ˀa                    stative aspect

-h                     diminutive suffix

yenyęˀah                    I have her as child; my daughter.

[yeh-nyen-en-ah]

ye-                   1st person (s) agent + feminine-zoic (s) patient ‘I to her’

-nyę-                verb root ‘to have as child’

-ˀa-                  stative aspect

-h                     diminutive suffix

hšęˀah                                  You have her as child; she is your daughter.

[hshen-en-ah]

hš-                   2nd person (s) agent + feminine-zoic (s) patient ‘you (s) to her’

ę                    verb root ‘to have as child’

-ˀa-                  stative aspect

-h                     diminutive suffix

uwęˀah                  She has her as child; she is her daughter.

[oo-wen-en-ah]

uw-                  feminine-zoic (s) agent + feminine-zoic (s) patient ‘she to her’

ę                    verb root ‘to have as child’

-ˀa-                  stative aspect

-h                     diminutive suffix

haęˀah                      He has her as child; she is his daughter.

[hah-en-en-ah]

ha-                   masculine agent (s) + feminine-zoic (s) patient ‘he to her’

ę                    verb root ‘to have as child’

-ˀa-                  stative aspect

-h                     diminutive suffix

huwęˀah                 He has him as child; his son.     OR

[hoo-wen-en-ah]    She has him as child; her son

huw-                masculine (s) agent  + masculine (s) patient ‘he to him’                                                                              OR

feminine-zoic (s) agent + masculine (s) patient ‘she to him’

ę                    verb root + ‘to have as child’

-ˀa-                  stative aspect

-h                     diminutive suffix

hayǫmęˀah                            She has them (masculine[1]) as children; her sons.     OR

[hah-yon-men-en-a]         He has them (masculine) as children; his sons.        OR

He has them (feminine) as children; his daughters.   OR

hayǫm- feminine-zoic (s) agent + masculine plural patient ‘she to them (m)’OR

masculine (s) agent + masculine plural patient ‘he to them (m)’         OR

masculine (s) agent + feminine-zoic (p) patient ‘he to them (f)’

ę                    verb root ‘to have as child’

-ˀa-                  stative aspect

-h                     diminutive suffix

hǫtakyęˀą               They (masculine or mixed) are parents and children.                   [hon-tah-kyen- en-an]

hǫ-                   masculine plural agent, they (masculine or mixed)

-tahky-             reciprocal

-ę-                    verb root ‘to have as child‘

-ˀ-                stative aspect

-ą                     diminuti

Exercise: Children

  • I have them (feminine) as children, as daughters.

_______________________________________________________________

  • I have them (masculine or mixed) as children, as sons or sons and daughter(s).

______________________________________________________________

  • You have them (feminine) as children, as daughters.

_______________________________________________________________

  • You have them (masculine or mixed) as children, as sons or sons and daughter(s)

_______________________________________________________________

  • I have him as child, my son. _________________________________________________________

Brothers and Sisters

The verb root used to express the sibling relation of brothers and sisters is -yę.  Often it is used with the reflexive prefix -atat, or the semi reflexive -at- , both of which take the a- conjugation.  As the reflexive adds the meaning of ‘each other’, all of the words that employ it are dual or plural.  There is no singular form of this verb.

kyatateˀyęhąh                  We two (n) are siblings, brothers, sisters.

[kyah-tah-te-e-yeh-hanh]

ky-       1st person inclusive dual agent, we two (one talking to the other)

-atate-  reflexive

-ˀyę-     verb root  ’to be siblings‘

-h-       stative aspect

-ąh       diminutive suffix

kwatateˀyęhąh        We (more than two) (n) are siblings.

[kwah-tah-te-e-yeh-hanh]

kw-      1st person inclusive plural agent, we plural (one talking to others)

-atate-  reflexive

-ˀyę-     verb root  ’to be siblings‘

-h-       stative aspect

-ąh       diminutive suffix

žateˀyęˀąhą             They two (m) are brothers, his/her brother or his sister.

[zhah-teh-eh-yen-en-an-han]

ž-         masculine dual agent,    they two (masculine/mixed)

-ate-     semireflexive

-ˀyę-     verb root ‘to be siblings’

-ˀ-        stative aspect

-ąhą     diminutive suffix

hǫˀteˀyęˀąhą           They plural (m) are siblings, brothers, brother(s ) and sister(s)

[hon-onteh-eh-yen-en-an-han]

hǫ-       masculine plural agent, they (masculine/mixed)

-ˀte       semireflexive

-ˀyę–    verb root ‘to be siblings’

-ˀ-        stative aspect

-ąhą     diminutive suffiix

yiateˀyęˀąhą            They two (f) are sisters.

[yee-ah-teh-eh-yen-en-an-han]

yi-        feminine-zoic dual agent, ‘they two (f)

-ˀte       semireflexive

-ˀyę-     verb root ‘to be siblings’

-ˀ-        stative aspect

-ąhą     diminutive suffix

yǫˀteˀyęˀąhą           They plural (f) sisters

[yon-onteh-eh-yen-en-an-han]

yǫ-       feminine-zoic plural agent, they (f)

-ˀte       semireflexive

-ˀyę–    verb root ‘to be siblings’

-ˀ-        stative aspect

-ąhą     diminutive suffix

heˀyęˀąh                 He is my sibling, my brother, my younger brother.

[heh-eh-yen-en-anh]

he-                   1st person agent + masculine (s) patient,  I to him

-ˀyę-                 verb root ’to be siblings‘

-ˀ-                    stative aspect

-ąh                   diminutive suffix

yeˀyęˀąh                 She is my sibling, my sister, my younger sister.

[yeh-eh-yen-en-anh)

ye-                   1st person (s) agent + feminine-zoic (s) patient, I to her

-ˀyę-                 verb root ’to be siblings‘

-ˀ-                    stative aspect

-ąh                   diminutivesuffix

huˀyęˀąh                He is his or her sibling, his or her brother

[hoo-oo-yen-en-anh]

hu-                   masc. (s) or fem.-zoic (s) agent + masculine (s) patient, (s)he to him

-ˀyę-                 verb root ’to be siblings‘

-ˀ-                    stative aspect

-ąh                   diminutive suffix

uˀyęˀąh                  She is her sibling, her sister

[oo-oo-yen-en-an]

u-                     feminine-zoic (s) agent + feminine-zoic (s) patient, she to her

-ˀyę-                 verb root ’to be siblings‘

-ˀ-                    stative aspect

-ąh                   diminutive suffix

Exercise: Brothers and Sisters

Translate the following

  • aywatateˀyęhąh _________________________________________________________
  • tsatateˀyęhąh _________________________________________________________
  • ayiatateˀyęhąh _________________________________________________________
  • skwatateˀyęhąh ________________________________________________________

Exercise: Older and Younger Brothers and Sisters

  • She is your younger sister___________________________________________________
  • He is your younger brother__________________________________________________
  • He is my older brother___________________________________________________
  • She is my older sister.____________________________________________________
  • He is your older brother.___________________________________________________

Grandparents and Grandchildren

One verb root for the grandparent and grandchild relationship is -hšutaˀ-   As a term of address between the two it takes the following forms.  It is a consonant conjugation verb.

ahšutaˀ         grandparent (can be used with both mother’s and father’s parents)

[ah-shoo-tahah]

ahšut           my grandchild (can be used with both son’s and daughter’s children)

[ah-shoot]

The forms for terms of reference include the following:

ǫmahšutaˀa              She is our grandmother[2]

[on-mah-shoo-tah-ah]

ǫma-                feminine-zoic (s) agent + 1st person plural patient, she to us

-hšuta- verb root ‘to be grandparent to’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

-a                     diminutive suffix

sǫmahšutaˀa          He is grandparent to us, our grandfather. +

[son-mah-shoo-tah-ah]

sǫma-               masculine (s) agent + 1st person plural patient, he to us

-hšuta- verb rootto be grandparent to’

                      stative aspect

-a                     diminutive suffix

The verb root -atreˀa- means ‘to have as grandchild.’ It is a- conjugation.

utreˀa[3]                             She has her as grandchild, her granddaughter.

[oo-treh-eh-ah]

u-                 feminine-zoic (s) agent + feminine-zoic (s) patient, she to her

-treˀa-              verb root ‘to have as grandchild’ + stative aspect

hatreˀa                   He has her as grandchild, his granddaughter.

[hah-treh-eh-ah]

h-                 masculine (s) agent + feminine-zoic patient, he to her

-atreˀa-            verb root ‘to have as grandchild’ + stative aspect

hutreˀa                   He has him as grandchild, his grandson OR                                             [hoo-treh-eh-ah]  She has him as grandchild, her grandson

hu-                 masculine (s) agent OR feminine-zoic (s) + masculine (s) patient,

he or she to him

-treˀa             verb root ‘to have as grandchild’ + stative aspect

 

Exercise: Grandparents and Grandchildren

  • She is grandparent to them (feminine).__________________________________________
  • She is grandparent to them (masculine)____________________________________
  • You have him as grandchild.__________________________________________________
  • You have her as grandchild.___________________________________________________
  • She has him as grandchild.____________________________________________________

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aunts and Uncles–Nieces and Nephews

 

The verb root for ‘to be aunt to’ is -ahrahak, an a- conjugation verb.  Traditionally it referred only to father’s sisters and father’s brothers’ wives, was extended to all those that mainstream society would call ‘aunts.’.   The first example shows how a nephew or niece would address this person:

 

ahrahak                           my aunt (term of address)

[ah-rah-hahk]

 

sahrahak                                She is your aunt.

[sah-rah-hahk]

s-                                 feminine-zoic (s) agent + 2nd person (s) patient,  she to you

-ahrahak                     verb root ‘to be aunt to’ + stative aspect

 

uhrahak                                  She is her aunt

[oo-rah-hak]

u-                                 feminine-zoic (s) agent + feminine-zoic (s) patient, she to her

-(a)hrahak-                 verb root ‘to be aunt to’ + stative aspect

 

 

 

The verb root for ‘to be uncle to’ is awatęnǫrǫˀ, (a- conjugation).  Traditionally it referred to just mother’s brothers, but by the end of the 19th century it had the same reference as the English term.  The first example is how a niece or nephew would address an uncle:

 

awatęnǫrǫˀ                      my uncle (term of address)

[ah-wah-ten-non-ron-on]

 

In reference we have these terms:

 

hawatęnǫrǫˀ                         He is uncle to me; my uncle.

[hah-wah-ten-non-ron-on]

haw-                            masculine (s) agent + 1st person (s) patient, he to me

-atęnǫrǫ-                     verb root ‘to be uncle to’

-ˀ                                  stative aspect

 

žatęnǫrǫˀ                               He is uncle to you (singular); your uncle.

[zhah-ten-non-ron-on]

ž-                                 masculine (s) agent + 2nd person (s), he to you

-atęnǫrǫ-                     verb root ‘to be uncle to’

-ˀ                                  stative aspect

 

hutęnǫrǫˀ                        He is uncle to him; his uncle.

[hoo-ten-non-ron-on]

hu-                               masculine (s) agent + masculine (s) patient,  he to him

-tęnǫrǫ-                       verb root ‘to be uncle to’

-ˀ                                  stative aspect

 

hatęnǫrǫˀ                        He is uncle to her; her uncle.

[hah-ten-non-ron-on]

h-                                 masculine (s) agent + feminine-zoic (s) patient,  he to her

-atęnǫrǫ-                     verb root ‘to be uncle to’

-ˀ                                  stative aspect

 

Nephews and Nieces

 

Just as no verb specifies, ‘daughter’ or ‘son’, or ‘brother’ or ‘sister’, so no verb root specifically means ‘niece’ or ‘nephew.’  There is -yęwatę- ‘to have as niece or nephew’ (yę-/i- conjugation).  Traditionally referring only to the children of your sibling of the opposite sex, it came to refer to those mainstream society calls ‘niece ‘and ‘nephew’.   All instances of -i- or -ę- at the end of the pronominal prefixes presented below are part of the verb root

 

The form of address for both your nephew and your niece is:

 

iwatęˀ a                  my nephew or niece

[ee-wah-ten-en-ah]

 

The forms of reference are as follows:

 

yiwatęˀa                 I have her as niece; my niece

[yee-wah-ten]

y-                     1st person (s) agent + feminine-zoic (s) patient, I to her

-iwatę-             verb root ‘to be nephew or niece’

-ˀ-                    stative aspect

-a                     diminutive suffix

 

hešiwatęˀa                 You have him as nephew; your nephew.

[heh-shee-wah-ten]

heš-                  2nd person (s) agent + masculine (s) patient, you to him

-iwatę-             verb root ‘to have as nephew or niece’

-ˀ-                    stative aspect

-a                     diminutive suffix

 

 

 

hamęwatęˀa              He has him as nephew (his nephew).

[hah-men-wah-ten]

ham-                masculine (s) agent + masculine (s) patient, he to him

-ęwatę-            verb root ‘to have as niece or nephew’

-ˀ-                    stative aspect

-a                     diminutive suffix

 

Exercise

 

  • She is his aunt.___________________________________________________________
  • He is her uncle.___________________________________________________________
  • He is our uncle.___________________________________________________________
  • She has her as niece._______________________________________________________
  • You have her as niece.______________________________________________________

 

Cousins

 

For cousins, the verb root is -araˀse ‘to be cousins’ (a- conjugation).  Traditionally it was used for people of your own generation who were not of your clan, but came to have the same meaning as it does in mainstream society.  The verb always takes the dual or the plural.

 

ažaraˀseh                              We two (exclusive) are cousins; my cousin

[ah-zhah-rah-seh]

až-                               1st person exclusive dual agent we two (excluding the listener)

-araˀse-                       verb root ‘to be cousins’

-h                                 stative aspect

 

kyaraˀseh                             We two (inclusive) are cousins; my cousin.

[kyah-rah-ah-sen]

ky-                               1st person inclusive dual agent, we two (including the listener)

-araˀse-                       verb root ‘to be cousins’

-h                                 stative aspect

 

ežaraˀseh                         They two (m) are cousins,  his cousin.

[eeh-zhah-rah-ah-seh]

e-                                 partitive ‘such’

-ž-                                masculine dual agent, they (m) two

-araˀse-                       VR ‘to be cousins’

-h                                 stative aspect

 

 

hǫrąˀseh                          They (masculine or mixed) are cousins.

[hon-rah-ah-seh]

hǫ-                               masculine plural agent,  they (masculine or mixed)

-raˀse-                          verb root ‘to be cousins’

-h                                 stative aspect

 

Exercise: Cousins.

 

  • We (inclusive plural) are cousins._______________________________________________
  • We (exclusive plural) are cousins._______________________________________________
  • You (plural) are cousins.______________________________________________________
  • They two (feminine) are cousins._________________________________________________
  • They (feminine plural) are cousins.__________________________________________

 

In-Laws

Opposite Sex Siblings-in-law: -ndaweˀt- (consonant conjugation; no singular forms)

 

ǫįndaweˀt              We two are sister and brother-in-law.

[on-in-ndah-weh-eht]

ǫį-                    1st person dual patient, we two

-ndaweˀt          verb root ‘to be opposite sex siblings-in-law + stative aspect

 

tsindaweˀt              You two are sister and brother-in-law.

[tsee-ndah-weh-eht]

tsi-                   2nd person dual patient, you two

-ndaweˀt          verb root ‘to be opposite sex siblings-in-law + stative aspect

 

Brothers-in-law -akyu (no singular); a- conjugation

 

hǫkyuh                  They (p) are brothers-in-law, his brothers-in-law.

[hon-kyooh]

hǫ-                   masculine plural agent, they (m)

-(a)kyu–           verb root ‘to be brothers-in-law

-h                     stative aspect

 

awakyuh                We (x) are brothers-in-law, my brothers-in-law.

[ah-wah-kyooh]

aw-                  1st person exclusive patient plural, we (x)

-akyu–             verb root ‘to be brothers-in-law

-h                     stative aspect

 

skwakyuh              You (p) are brothers-in-law, your brothers in law.

skw-                2nd person plural agent,  you (p)

-akyu–             verb root ‘to be brothers-in-law

-h                     stative aspect

 

To be sisters-in-law (female perspective): aže- to be sisters-in-law (no singular); a-conjugation

 

ažažeˀ                    we (x) two are sisters-in-law.

[ah-zha-zheh]

až-                   1st person dual exclusive agent, we (x) two (excluding the listener)

-aže-                verb root ‘to be sisters-in-law’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

 

awažeˀ                   We (x) plural are sisters-in-law   .

[ah-wah-zheh]

aw-                  1st person exclusive plural agent, we (x) plural (excluding the listener)

-aže-                verb root ‘to be sisters-in-law’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

 

skwažeˀ                 You (p) are sisters-in-law.

[skwah-zheh]

skw-                2nd person plural agent, you (plural)

-aže-                verb root ‘to be sisters-in-law’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

 

Exercise: Siblings-in-Law

 

Translate the following:

 

  • You (plural) are sister(s) and brother(s)-in-law __________________________
  • We (plural) are sister(s) and brother(s)-in law. __________________________
  • They (m) (plural) are sister(s) and brother(s)-in-law. __________________________
  • They two are brothers-in-law. __________________________
  • We two are brothers-in-law. __________________________
  • You two are sisters-in-law. __________________________
  • You plural are sisters-in-law __________________________

 

 

Son-in-law: -nęmą-   (consonant conjugation)

 

henęmąˀ                 He is my son-in-law.

[heh-nen-man[4]]

he-                   1st person (s) agent + masculine (s) patient I have him

-nęmą-             verb root ‘to have as son-in-law’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

 

hayenęmąˀ             I am his son-in-law.  He has me as son-in-law.

[ha-yeh-nen-man]

haye-                masculine (s) agent + 1st person (s) patient, he has me

-nęmą-             verb root ‘to have as son-in-law’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

 

hunęmąˀ                He is his son-in-law. OR

[hoo-nen-man]       He is her son-in-law.

hu-                   masculine (s) or feminine-zoic (s) agent + masculine (s) patient

he or she has him

-nęmą-             verb root ‘to have as son-in-law’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

 

Daughter-in-Law: -skwa- (consonant conjugation)

 

ayeskwah              She has me as daughter-in-law; my mother-in-law.

[ah-yeh-skwah]

aye-                 feminine-zoic (s) agent + 1st person (s) patient, she has me

-skwa-             verb root ‘to have as daughter-in-law’

-h                     stative aspect

 

hayeskwah             He has me as daughter-in-law; my father-in-law.

[hah-yeh-skwah]

haye-                masculine (s) agent + 1st person (s) patient, he has me

-skwa-             verb root ‘to have as daughter-in-law’

-h                     stative aspect

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercise: Sons and Daughters-in-Law

 

Translate the Following

 

  • hešenęmąˀ ___________________________________
  • sǫmanęmąˀ ___________________________________
  • šeskwah ___________________________________
  • saskwah ___________________________________

 

Family

The Wyandotte word for ‘family’ also can mean ‘group’ or ‘crowd’, but the primary meaning relates to family.  It is a noun stem, that is a noun derived from a verb root.  It belongs to the yę-/i- conjugation, which with the patient as subject has the following forms:

 

ayikyuhkwaˀ                    my family

[ah-yee-kyooh-kwa]

ay-                               1st person patient, my

-ikyu-                          verb root ‘to be a matrilineage, family’

-hkw-                           instrumental root suffix

-aˀ                                noun suffix

 

sękyuhkwaˀ                     your (singular) family

[sen-kyooh-kwah]

sę-                               2nd person (s) patient, your

-ękyu-                         verb root ‘to be a matrilineage, family’

-hkw-                           instrumental root suffix

-aˀ                                noun suffix

 

ukyuhkwaˀ                      her family

[oo-kyoo-kwah]

u-                                 feminine-zoic (s) patient, her

kyu-                           verb root ‘to be a matrilineage, family’

-hkw-                           instrumental root suffix

-aˀ                                noun suffix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercise: Translate the following into Wyandot

 

  • His family________________________________________________________________
  • Your (plural) family_________________________________________________________
  • Their (feminine) family______________________________________________________
  • Their (masculine) family_____________________________________________
  • Our family.________________________________________________________________

 

Answers to Kinship Exercises

 

 

Exercises: Mother and Father

  • She is his mother hunduˀmęh
  • She is your (singular) mother. sanduˀmęh
  • She is their (mixed) mother. hutinduˀmęh
  • She is my adopted mother. anduˀmęˀahstih
  • I am her adopted mother. yenduˀmęˀahstik
  • She is your stepmother. sanduˀah
  • Your (singular) father žaˀistęh
  • Her father haˀistęh
  • His step-father hunduˀah
  • Our step-father. sǫmanduˀah

 

 

Exercise: Children

 

  • I have them (feminine) as children as daughters. yayenyęˀah
  • I have them (masculine or mixed) as children as sons or sons and daughter(s). hayenyęˀah
  • You (singular) have them (feminine) as children, as daughters. yahšenyęˀah
  • You (sing.) have them (masc. or mixed) as children, as sons (and daughter(s)) hahšenyęˀah
  • I have him as child, my son. hinyęˀah

 

Exercise: Brothers and Sisters

 

  • ayiatakę We two, exclusive are siblings.
  • aywatakę We (more than two) , exclusive are siblings.
  • yǫtakę They (feminine) are siblings.
  • žatakę             They (masculine or mixed dual) are siblings.
  • hǫtakę They (masculine plural) are siblings.

 

Exercise: Older and Younger

 

  • She is your younger sister. hšeyęˀaha
  • He is your younger brother. hehšeyęˀaha
  • He is my older brother. hayeyęˀaha
  • She is my older sister. ayeyęˀaha
  • He is your older brother. žayęˀaha

 

 

Exercise: Grandparents and Grandchildren

 

  • She is grandparent to them (feminine). utihšutaˀa
  • She is grandparent to them (masculine/mixed) hutihšutaˀa
  • You have him as grandchild. hešatreˀa
  • You have her as grandchild. šatreˀa
  • She has him as grandchild. hutreˀa

 

Exercise:  Aunts and Uncles, Nieces and Nephews

 

  • She is his aunt. huhrahak
  • He is her uncle. hatęnǫrǫˀ
  • He is our uncle. sǫmatęnǫrǫˀ
  • She has her as niece. amęwatęˀa
  • You have her as niece. šiwatęˀa

 

Exercise: Cousins.

 

1) We (inclusive plural) are cousins.                   kwaraˀseh

2) We (exclusive plural) are cousins                   aywaraˀseh

  • You (plural) are cousins. skwaraˀseh
  • They two (feminine) are cousins. yiraˀseh
  • They (feminine plural) are cousins. yǫraˀseh

 

Exercise: Siblings-in-Law

 

  • You (plural) are sister(s) and brother(s)-in-law skwandawet
  • We (plural) are sister(s) and brother(s)-in law. ǫmandawet
  • They (m) (plural) are sister(s) and brother(s)-in-law. hutindawet
  • They two are brothers-in-law. žakyu
  • We two are brothers-in-law. ažakyu
  • You two are sisters-in-law. tsažeˀ
  • You plural are sisters-in-law skwažeˀ

Exercise: Translate the following

 

  • His family hukyuhkwaˀ
  • Your (plural) family skwękyuhkwaˀ
  • Their (feminine) family ǫdikyuhkwaˀ
  • Their (masculine or mixed) family hǫdikyuhkwaˀ
  • Our family. omękyuhkwaˀ

 

Conjugations and their Pronominal Prefixes

 

At the end of this lesson there is a listing of some of the combinations of the agents (usually the subject) and patients (usually the object but sometimes the subject) of the conjugations used for kinship terms

 

Pronominal Prefixes

 

Consonant Conjugation

 

Form                                        Agent               Patient              Translation

 

ye-       [yeh]                            1A                   FZP                 I to her

he-       [heh]                            1A                   MP                  I to him

yaye-    [yah-yeh]                      1A                   FZpP               I to them (feminine)

haye-    [hah-yeh-]                    1A                   MpP                I to them (masculine or mixed)

yǫ-       [yon]                            1A                   2P                    I to you (singular)

hše-      [sheh]                           2A                   FZP                 you (singular) to her

hehše-  [heh-sheh]                    2A                   MP                  you (singular) to him

yahše-  [yah-sheh]                    2A                   FZpP               you (singular) to them (feminine)

hahše-  [hah-sheh]                    2A                   MpP                you (sing.) to them (masc. or mixed)

a(ye)-   [ah(yeh)]                      FZA                 1P                    she to me

sa         [sah]                            FZA                 2P                    she to you (singular)

u-         [ooh]                           FZA                 FZP                 she to her

hu-       [hooh]                          FZA                 MP                  she to him

ǫma-    [on-mah]                      FZA                 1pP                  she to us

skwa-   [skwah]                        FZA                 2pP                  she to you (plural)

uti-       [ooh-tee]                      FZA                 FZpP               she to them (female)

huti-     [hoo-tee]                      FZA                 MpP                she to them (all male or mixed)

ha(ye)- [hah-yeh]                     MA                  1P                    he to me

sǫma-   [son-mah]                     MA                  1pP                  he to us

ža-       [zhah]                           MA                  2P                    he to you (singular)

heskwa- [heh-skwah]               MA                  2pP                  he to you (plural)

ha-       [hah]                            MA                  FZP                 he to her

hu-       [hoo]                            MA                  MP                  he to him

hayǫm- [hah-yonm]                  MA                  FZpP               he to them (feminine)

FZA                 MpP                she to them (masculine)

MA                  MpP                she to them (masculine)

 

Pronominal Prefixes: A-Conjugation

 

Form                Agent               Patient                          Translation

 

y-                     1A                   FZP                             I have/to her

h-                     1A                   MP                              I have/to him

š-                     2A                   FZP                             you have/to her

heš- [hehsh]      2A                   MP                              you have/to him

u-* [oo]           FZA                 FZP                             she has/to her

h-                     MA                  FZP                             he has/to her

hu-* [hoo]        FZA                 MP                              she has/to him

hu-* [hoo]        MA                  MP                              he has/to him

ky-                   1ndA                —                                 we two (inclusive, including the listener)

kw-                  1npA                —                                 we plural (inclusive, including the listeners)

až- [ah-zh]        1xdA                —                                 we two (exclusive, excluding the listener)

aw-                  1xpA                —                                 we plural (exclusive, excluding listener(s))

ts-                    2dA                 —                                 you two

skw-                2pA                 —                                 you plural

yi- [yee]           FZdA               —                                 they (feminine dual)

yǫ- [yon]          FZpA               —                                 they (feminine plural)

ž- [zh]              MdA                —                                 they (masculine or mixed dual)

hǫ- [hon]          MpA                —                                 they (masculine or mixed plural)

 

*The -u- replaces the -a-

 

yę- / i- conjugation

 

Form                            Agent               Patient              Translation

 

yi-        [yee]                1A                   FZP                 I to her

ayi        [ah-yee]           —                    1P                    my

ǫmę-    [on-men[5]]        —-                  1pP                  our

hi-        [hee]               1A                   MP                  I to him

ši-        [shee]               2A                   FZP                 you to her

heši-     [heh-shee]       2A                   MP                  you (singular) to him

sę-       [sen]                —                    2P                    your (singular)

skwę-   [skwen]            —                    2pP                  your (plural)

amę-* [ah-men]          FZA                 FZP                 She to her

u-         [oo]                 —                    FZP                 her (-u- replaces -i-/yę-)

hę-       [hen]                MA                  FZP                 he to her

ǫdi-      [on-dee]           —                    FZpP               their (f)

hamę-* [hah-men]        FZA                 MP                  she to him

hu-       [hoo]                —                    MP                  him (-hu- replaces –i-/yę)

hu-       [hoo]                MA                  MP                  he to him

hǫdi-    [hon-dee]         —                    MpP                their (m)

 

*This is not the usual pronominal prefix for this conjugation.

 

 

[1] The masculine plural group can be composed entirely of males, or males and females.

[2] The toad traditionally received this name as she was the one to bring earth and seeds to the people.

[3] The -a- at the end may be a diminutive.

[4] The -an- here is not pronounced like the English word ‘man’, but like the –an- in ‘debuante’

[5] The -en- here is a nasal vowel, and does not sound like the -en-  in ‘men’ more like the -en in ‘entrance’.

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