Masculine Dual and Plural Agents

Masculine Dual and Plural Agents

Masculine Dual Agent

hižaˀahah   They two (m) (are) children.

[hee-zhah-ah-hah]

hi-        masculine dual agent – they two (m)

-žaˀah- noun root – child

-ah       noun suffix

aˀžatriwihšęˀ They two[1] (m) finished a matter, made a decision.

[ah-ah-zha-tree-weeh-shen-en]

aˀ-        factual

-ž-        masculine dual agent – they two (m)

-at-       semi-reflexive voice

-riw-    noun root – matter, affair

-ihš-     verb root – to finish

-ęˀ        punctual aspect

hiwey  They two (m) are together, her spouse, his spouse.

[hee-wehy]

hi-        masculine dual agent – they (m) two

-we-     verb root – to be together

-y         stative aspect

hndeˀ           They two (m) go.

[hn-deh-eh]

hnd-    masculine dual agent – they (m) two

-e-        verb root – to go, come

-h         purposive aspect

ehnǫndaǫˀ   They two (m) have as home

[eh-hnon-dah-on-on]

e-         partitive

-hn-     masculine dual agent – they (m) two

-ǫndaǫ- verb root – to have as home

-ˀ          stative aspect

Masculine Plural Agent

There is variety in the forms taken by the masculine plural agent with the different conjugations.  The consonant conjugation takes -hati-, the a- conjugation takes -hǫ-, and the other three take   -hen-, -hę-  or -hend- when not followed by a nasal vowel.

hatindareˀ                      They (m) live (together).

[hah-teen-dah-reh-eh]

hati-                  masculine plural agent – they (m)      consonant                              conjugation

-ndare-              verb root – to live

-ˀ                         stative aspect

hǫteyęˀąhą                      They (m) are siblings

[hon-teh-yen-en-han]

hǫ-                               masculine plural agent – they (m)  a-                                                  conjugation

-te-                               semi-reflexive voice

-yę-                              verb root – to be siblings

-ˀ-                                 stative aspect

-ąha                             diminutive aspect suffix

ąˀhędeht                          They (m) went to a place.

[an-an-hen-deht]

ąˀ-                     factual

-hęd-                masculine plural agent – they (m) e- conjugation

-e-                     verb root – to go

-ht                     causative root suffix + punctual aspect

ahendihǫˀ                       They (m) said.

[ah-hen-dee-hon-on]

a-                      factual

-hend-             masculine plural agent – they (m)  a- conjugation

-ihǫ-                verb root – to say

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

henǫmęnyęhtiˀ                They (m) are young men.

[hen-on-men-yen-tee-ee]

hen-                masculine plural agent – they (m) o- conjugation

-ǫmęnyęhti-    verb root – to be a young man

-ˀ                         stative aspect

With Masculine Singular Patient -hǫmą-

hǫmąyuwanęh     They (m) have him as large, he is the chief.

[hon-man-yoo-wan-enh]

hǫmą-        masculine plural agent + masculine singular patient       – they -him

-yuwanę-     verb root – to be large

-h                  stative aspect

With Masculine Plural Patient -hǫmąti-

hǫmątingyah        They (m) are chasing them (m).

[hon-man-teen-gyah]

hǫmati-                  masculine plural agent + masculine plural                                      patient – they – them

-ngya-                   verb root – to chase

-h                           habitual aspect

 

With Feminine-Zoic Singular Patient -yǫmą-

aˀyǫmąaˀtateyat     They (m) burned her body

[ah-ah-yon-man-ah-ah-tah-teh-yaht]

aˀ-                    factual

-yǫmą-             masculine plural agent + feminine-zoic singular patient – they – her/it

-aˀt-                  noun root – body

-atey-               verb root – to burn

-at                    causative root suffix + punctual aspect

With Feminine-Zoic Plural Patient -yǫmati- or yǫmąti

ayǫmatinyęšraˀ      They (m) skinned them (f).

[ah-yon-mah-teen-yen-shrah-ah]

a-                     factual

-yǫmati-           masculine plural agent + feminine-zoic plural patient – they – them

-nyęšra-           verb root – to skin

-ˀ                        punctual aspect

With Indefinite Patient – hayu-

ahayumąturęhaˀ     They (m) found someone.

[ah-hah-yoo-man-too-ren-hah-ah]

a-                     factual

-hayum-           masculine plural agent + indefinite patient – them – someone

-ąt-                   noun root – body

-urę-                 verb root – to find

-hą-                  inchoative root suffix

-ˀ                      punctual  aspect

With First Person Singular Patient –hǫye-

tehǫyehkwandihaˀkyeˀ              They (m) go take it from me

[teh-hon-yeh-kwan-dee-hah-ah-kyeh-eh]

te-                    dualic

-hǫye-              masculine plural agent + 1st person singular patient – they – me

-hkwa-             verb root – to take

-nd-                  dative root suffix

-i-                     stative aspect

-haˀky-             progressive root suffix

-eˀ                    purposive aspect

With Second Person Singular Patient – hes(a)-

sahesaˀtǫtiˀ                      They (m) abandoned you again.

[sah-heh-sah-ah-ton-tee-ee]

s-                                 repetitive

-a-                                factual

-hes-                            masculine plural agent + 2nd person singular patient

-aˀt-                              noun root – body

-ǫti-                              verb root – to abandon

-ˀ                                  punctual  aspect

 

 

 

 

[1] As presented in the Narratives, in this case one of the two is a woman.

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