Money Matters in Wyandot

Money Matters in Wyandot

Money: -wihst-,

The Wyandot word for ‘money’ is the noun root -wihst-.  It had as its pre-contact meaning  ‘fish scales, the skin of flint or hard corn.’  It came to meant ‘metal’ and ‘clock’ as well.

yawihstaˀ               money

[yah-weeh-stah-ah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-wihst-             noun root ‘metal, money’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

Tuh iwa yawihstaˀ            How much money is it?  How much does it cost?

[tooh]

iwa              It is a quantity.

[ee-wah]

iw-       partitive ‘such’ + feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-a         verb root ‘to be a quantity’ + stative aspect

kwižuh                  sakwihstamęh        Do you have any money?

kwižuh                  yes-no question word

[kwee-zhooh]

sakwihstamęh        You have money

[sah-kweeh-stah-menh]

s-         2nd person singular patient ‘you’

-ak-     semireflexive voice

-wihst- noun root ‘metal, money’

-a-       noun suffix

-mę-     verb root ‘to have’

-h         stative aspect

hęh    ayakwihstamęh      Yes, I have some money.

[henh]

ayakwihstamęh                I have money.

[ah-yah-kweeh-stah-menh]

ay-                            1st person singular patient ‘I’

-ak-                             semireflexive voice

-wihst-                      noun root ‘money’

-a-                               noun suffix

-mę-                           verb root ‘to have’

-h                                 stative aspect

tąˀą    teˀayakwihstaęˀ      No, I don’t have any money.

[tan-an]

teˀayakwihstamęh            I don’t have any money, I don’t have the money.

[the-eh-ah-yah-kweeh-stah-menh]

teˀ-                               negative ‘not’

ay-                             1st person singular patient ‘I’

-ak-                            semireflexive voice

wihst-                     noun root ‘money’

-a-                               noun suffix

mę-                            verb root ‘to have’

-h                                 stative aspect

dollar (fur, pelt): -ndew-

Tuh iyandewayeh?           How many dollars are there?

(How much does it cost in dollars?)

iyandewayeh                   It is such a number of furs, pelts, dollars.

[ee-yan-deh-wah-yeh]

i-                 partitive ‘such’

-ya-                  feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-ndew-             noun root ‘fur, pelt, dollar’

-a-                   noun suffix

-ye-                  verb root ‘to number’

-h                     stative aspect

Tuh    isandewamęh         How many dollars do you have?

isandewamęh         You have dollars.

[ee-san-deh-wah-menh]

i-                      partitive ‘such’

sa-                   2nd person singular patient ‘you’

-ndew-             noun root ‘fur, pelt, dollar’

-a-                   noun suffix

-mę–                 verb root ‘to have’

-h                     stative aspect

One dollar                       skandewat

[skan-deh-what]

s-                     repetitive

-ka-                 feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-ndew-             noun root ‘fur, pelt, dollar’

-a-                   noun suffix

-t-                    verb root ‘to be one’ + stative aspect   

Two dollars                     tęndih teyandewayeh

[ten-deeh]  They two are two.

te-                    dualic

-nd-                 feminine-zoic dual agent ‘they two’                                                                          -i-                     verb root ‘to be two’

-h                     stative aspect

[teh-yan-deh-wah-yeh]     It is two dollars.

te-                    dualic

-ya-                  feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

ndew-            noun root ‘fur, pelt, dollar’

-a-                   noun suffix

-ye-                verb root ‘to number’

-h                     stative aspect

Three dollars               ahšęhk iyandewayeh

[ah-shenhk]

[ee-yan-deh-wah-yeh] It is such a number of dollars.

i-                      partitive ‘such’

-ya-                  feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

ndew-            noun root ‘fur, pelt, dollar’

-a-                   noun suffix

-ye-                  verb root ‘to number’

-h                     stative aspect

Twenty dollars                tęndih tewahsęh iyandewayeh

[teh-wah-senh]  It is two tens.

tew-                 dualic

-ahsę-              feminine-zoic singular agent + verb root ‘to be ten’

-h                     stative aspect

Twenty-one dollars          tęndih tewahsęh skat iskare iyandewayeh.

[ee-skah-reh]

i-                      partitive ‘such’

-s-                    repetitive

-ka-                 feminine-zoic singular agent

-re                   verb root ‘to be added to ten’ + stative aspect

Penny: -kwęndi[1]

yakwęndišraˀ         penny

[yah-kwen-dee-shrah-ah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-kwęndi-      ‘penny’

-šr-                  nominalizer

-aˀ                    noun suffix

skakwęndišrat        It is one penny, one cent.

[skah-kwen-dee-shrat]

s-                    repetitive

-ka-                 feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

kwęndi-      ‘penny’

-šr-                  nominalizer

-a-                   noun suffix

-t                      verb root ‘to be one’ + stative aspect

tęndih             kakwęndišrayeh               Two cents

kakwęndišrayeh               two cents

[kah-kwen-dee-shrah-yeh]

k-                     dualic

-a-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

kwęndi-          ‘penny’

-šr-                  nominalizer

-a-                   noun suffix

-ye-                  verb root ‘to number’

-h                     stative aspect

wihš             yakwęndišrayeh               Five cents

[weehsh]      [yah-kwen-dee-shrah-yeh]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

kwęndi-          ‘penny’

-šr-                  nominalizer

-a-                   noun suffix

-ye-                  verb root ‘to number’

-h                     stative aspect

skandewat    tundih          wihš   yakwęndišrayeh       One dollar and five cents

[toon-deeh] ‘and’

[weehsh] ‘four’

tęndih tewahsęh  iskare    wihš   yakwęndišrayeh     twenty five cents

The High Price of Tens

uhsęhšruwanęh                It is a large ten, amount, price.

[ooh-senh-shroo-wah-nenh]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-hsę-                verb root ‘to be 10’

-hšr-                 nominalizer

-uwanę–           verb root ‘to be large, great’

-h                     stative aspect

teˀuhsęhšruwanęh            It is not a large ten, amount, price.

[teh-eh-ooh-senh-shroo-wah-nenh]

teˀ                    negative

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-hsę-                verb root ‘to be 10’

-hšr-                 nominalizer

-uwanę–           verb root ‘to be large, great’

-h                     stative aspect

Buy Sell and Trade

Buy -atęndinǫ (semireflexive + verb root)

aˀyatęndinǫh          I bought it.

[ah-ah-yah-ten-dee-nonh]

aˀ-                    factual

-y-                   1st person singular agent ‘I’

-ate-                 semireflexive voice

-ndinǫ–            verb root ‘to desire’

-h                     punctual aspect

yatęndinǫhs           I buy it (often)

[yah-ten-dee-nonhs]

y-                     1st person singular agent ‘I’

-ate-                 semireflexive voice

-ndinǫ–            verb root ‘to desire’

-hs                   habitual aspect

yatewastandinǫhs   I often buy meat.

[yah-the-wah-stan-dee-nonhs]

y-                     1st person singular agent ‘I’

-ate-                 semireflexive voice

-wast-              noun root ‘meat’

-a-                   noun suffix

-ndinǫ–            verb root ‘to desire’

-hs                   habitual aspect

Kwižuh        eˀšatęndinǫh          Will you buy it?

eˀšatęndinǫh          You will buy it.

[eh-eh-shah-ten-dee-nonh]

eˀ-                    future

-š-                    2nd person singular patient ‘you’

-ate-                 semireflexive voice

-ndinǫ–            verb root ‘to desire’

-h                     punctual aspect

ąˀą     teˀyatęndinǫh                   No, I will not buy it.

teˀyatęndinǫh         I will not buy it.

[teh-eh-yah-ten-dee-nonh]

teˀ-                   negative + future

-y-                   1st person singular agent ‘I’

-atę-                 semireflexive voice

-ndinǫ–            verb root ‘to desire’

-h                        punctual aspect

Sell: -atęndinǫhst– (semireflexive + verb root + causative-instrumental)

ayatęndinǫhstih      I am selling it

[ah-yah-ten-deen-onh-steeh]

-ay-                  1st person singular patient ‘I’

-ate-                 semireflexive voice

-ndinǫ–            verb root ‘to desire’

-hst-                 causative-instrumental root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

ayatewastandinǫhstih       I am selling meat.

[ah-yah-teh-wah-stan-dee-nonh-steeh]

ay-                   1st person singular patient ‘I’

ate-                  semireflexive voice

-wast-              noun root ‘meat’

-a-                   noun suffix

-ndinǫ–            verb root ‘to desire’

-hst-                 causative-instrumental root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

yatęndinǫhsta        I sell it (often)

[yah-ten-dee-non-hstah]

-y-                   1st person singular agent ‘I’

-ate-                 semireflexive voice

-ndinǫ–            verb root ‘to desire’

-hst-                 causative-instrumental root suffix

-a                     habitual aspect

Kwižuh        satęndinǫhstih        Are you selling it?

satęndinǫhstih        You are selling it.

[sah-ten-dee-nonh-steeh]

s-                     2nd person singular patient ‘you’

-ate-                 semireflexive voice

-ndinǫ–            verb root ‘to desire’

-hst-                 causative-instrumental root suffix

-ih                    stative aspect

Kwižuh        ahšatęndinǫhst       Did you sell it?

ahšatęndinǫhst       You sold it.

[ah-shah-ten-dee-nonhst

a-                     factual

-hš-                  2nd person singular agent ‘you (s)’

-ate-                 semireflexive voice

-ndinǫ–            verb root ‘to desire’

-hst-                 causative-instrumental root suffix + punctual aspect

Hęh    aˀyatęndinǫhst       Yes, I sold it.

[henh]

aˀyatęndinǫhst       I sold it.

[ah-ah-yah-ten-dee-nonhst]

aˀ-                    factual

-y-                   1st person singular agent ‘I’

-ate-                 semireflexive voice

-ndinǫ–            verb root ‘to desire’

-hst-                 causative-instrumental root suffix + punctual aspect

to trade: -atat- + -wi-/-ǫ

tehšataˀtǫh   You will give to each other, trade.

[teh-shah-tah-ah-tonh]

te-        dualic + future

-hš-      2nd person singular agent ‘you (s)’

-atat-    reflexive voice

-ǫh       verb root ‘to give’ + punctual aspect

aˀkatatawiheˀ          I am going to trade

[ah-ah-kahtah-tah-wee-heh-eh]

aˀ-        factual

-k-       dualic + 1st person singular agent ‘I’

-atata-  reflexive voice

-wi-      verb root ‘to give’

-h-       dislocative root suffix

-eˀ        purposive aspect

tekyatatǫh    We two (inclusive) will trade with each other.

[teh-kyah-tah-tonh]

te-        dualic + future

-ky-     1st person inclusive dual agent ‘we two (in)‘

-atat-    reflexive voice

-ǫh       verb root ‘to give’ + punctual aspect

tehutatawih            He is trading.

[teh-hoo-tah-tah-weeh]

te-                    dualic

-hu-                  masculine singular patient ‘he’

-tat-                 reflexive voice

-wi-                  verb root ‘to give’

-h                     stative aspect

[1] This is based on the Cayuga and Tuscarora words for ‘penny’ made from borrowing the English word and changing the -p- to -kw-.

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