Smiling and Laughing in Wyandot

Smiling and Laughing

The words for ‘smiling’ and ‘laughing’ in Wyandotte are both derived from the same verb root -es- which can be translated as ‘to be happy’ or ‘to show happiness.’ The last one is suggested as the verb root  seems to relate primarily to the signs that people show of being happy.

Smiling

ažesǫ                    I am smiling .

[ah-zheh-son]

až-                   1st person singular patient  ‘I’

-es-                  verb root ‘to show happiness’

-ǫ-                    distributive root suffix + stative aspect

teˀažesǫ                 I am not smiling.

[teh-eh-ah-zheh-son]

teˀ-                   negative

až-                   1st person singular patient ‘I’

-es-                  verb root ‘to show happiness’

-ǫ-                    distributive root suffix + stative aspect

uwesǫ                    She is smiling.

[oo-weh-son]

suw-                feminine-zoic singular patient ‘he’

es-                  verb root ‘to show happiness’

-ǫ-                    distributive root suffix + stative aspect

uwesǫh                 She regularly,often smiles

[oo-weh-sonh]

uw-                  feminine-zoic singular patient ‘she’

es-                  verb root ‘to show happiness’

-ǫ-                    distributive root suffix

-h                     habitual aspect

aˀuwesǫ                She smiled

[ah-ah-oo-weh-son]

aˀ-        factual

-uw-     feminine-zoic singular patient –  ‘she’

es-      verb root ‘to show happiness’

-ǫ-        distributive root suffix  + punctual aspect

 

Imperatives 

tsesǫ            Smile (said to one person).

[tseh-son]

ts-        imperative + 2nd person singular agent ‘you’

es-      verb root ‘to show happiness’

-ǫ-        distributive root suffix  + imperative aspect

tsiesǫ           Smile (said to more than one person).

[tsee-eh-son]

tsi-       imperative + 2nd person plural agent ‘you (p)’

es-      verb root ‘to show happiness’

-ǫ-        distributive root suffix + imperative aspect

 

Laughing

aˀuwehskwaˀtęˀ     She laughed, was caused to show happiness.

[ah-ah-oo-weh-skwah-ah-teh-eh]

aˀ-        factual

-uw-     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘she’

es-      verb root ‘to show happiness’

-kw-     instrumental root suffix

-aˀt-      causative root suffix

-ę-        dative root suffix

-ˀ          punctual aspect

uwehskwaˀtandih She is laughing, caused to show happiness.

[oo-weh-skwah-ah-tan-deeh]

-uw-     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘she’

es-      verb root ‘to show happiness’

-kw-     instrumental root suffix

-aˀt-      causative root suffix

-and-    dative root suffix

-ih        stative aspect

 

teˀuwehskwaˀtandih        She is not laughing.

[teh-eh-oo-weh-skwah-ah-tan-deeh]

teˀ-       negative

-uw-     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘she’

es-      verb root ‘to show happiness’

-kw-     instrumental root suffix

-aˀt-      causative root suffix

-and-    dative root suffix

-ih        stative aspect

ehuweskwaˀtęh     He will laugh, be caused to laugh.

[eh-hoo-weh-skwah-ah-ten]

e-         future

-huw-   masculine singular patient ‘he’

es-      verb root ‘to show happiness’

-kw-     instrumental root suffix

-aˀt-      causative root suffix

-ę-        dative root suffix

-h         punctual aspect

 

ažeskwaˀtandiˀ       I often laugh, am caused to show happiness.

[ah-zheh-skwah-ah-tan-dee-ee]

až-      1st person singular patient ‘I’

es-      verb root ‘to show happiness’

-kw-     instrumental root suffix

-aˀt-      causative root suffix

-and-    dative root suffix

-ik        habitual aspect

 

tseskwaˀtęˀ             Laugh! (said to one person)

[tsęh-skwah-ah-ten-en]

ts-        imperative + 2nd person singular agent ‘you’

es-      verb root ‘to show happiness’

-kw-     instrumental root suffix

-aˀt-      causative root suffix

-ę-        imperative aspect

 

tsieskwaˀtęˀ            Laugh! (said to more than one person)

[tsee-eh-skwah-ah-ten-en

tsi-       imperative + 2nd person plural agent ‘you’

es-        verb root ‘to show happiness’

-kw-     instrumental root suffix

-aˀt-      causative root suffix

-ę-        imperative aspect

 

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