The purposive in Wyandot

The Purposive

The purposive aspect contains the idea of intention, prediction or on the way to do something. It often follows the root suffixes dislocative -d- which involves motion or the progressive -(h)aty, which refers to continuing action.  It often is accompanied by the factual prefix –a(ˀ), but just as often does not.  It is almost always found at the end of a word, in the Narratives taking the forms -eˀ, -eh- -e- or. ˀ

Following the Dislocative -d-

With the Verb Root –nyon– ’to lead or take with‘ (consonant conjugation)

henyǫndeˀ              I am leading him, taking him with me.

[hen-yon-deh-eh]

he-                   first person agent with masculine patient (1 to him)

-nyǫn-           verb root ’to lead, take with‘

-d-                   dislocative root suffix

-eˀ                    purposive aspect          

hunyǫndeˀ              He is going to lead him, take him with him.

[hoon-yon-deh-eh]

hu-                   masculine agent with masculine patient (he to him)

-nyǫn-              verb root ’to lead, take with‘

-d-                   dislocative root suffix

-eˀ                    purposive aspect          

With the verb root -atǫn- ’to become‘ (a- conjugation)

hǫtǫndeˀ      They (m) are going to become.

[hon-ton-deh-eh]

hǫ-       masculine plural patient ‘they (m)’

-tǫn–   verb root ’to become‘

-d-       dislocative root suffix

-eˀ       purposive aspect

yǫtǫndeˀ      They (f) are going to become.

[yon-ton-deh-eh]

yǫ-       feminine plural patient ‘they (f)’

-tǫn–    verb root ’to become‘

-d-       discocative root suffix

-eˀ        purposive aspect

Questions #1 – How would you say…

  1. She is leading him, taking him with her. [-hu- she-him]
  2. You (s) are leading him, taking him with you. [-hehše- you-him]
  3. She is going to become (with no addition to the a-conjugation verb).
  4. He is going to become (with h- as the masculine singular agent)

With the Verb Root -e- ’to come, go, walk‘ (e- conjugation)                            

tareˀ                      He is coming here.

[tah-reh-eh]

t-                      cislocative prefix ‘here’

-a-                   factual prefix

-r-                    masculine singular agent ‘he’

-e-                    verb root ’to come, go, walk‘

-ˀ                      purposive aspect

tahęndeˀ                 They (m) are coming here.

[tah-nen-deheh]

t-                      cislocative prefix ‘here’

-a-                     factual prefix

-hęnd-              masculine plural agent, ‘they (m)’

-e-                    verb root ’to come, go, walk‘

-ˀ                       purposive aspect

areˀ                       He going there.

[ah-reh-eh]

a-                     translocative prefix ‘there’  + factual prefix

-r-                    masculine singular agent ‘he’

-e-                    verb root ’to come, go, walk‘

-ˀ                       purposive aspect

ahęndeˀ                 They (m) are going there.

[ah-nen-deh-eh]

a-                       translocative prefix ‘there’ + factual prefix

-hęnd-              masculine plural agent ‘they (m)’

-e-                    verb root ’to come, go, walk‘

-ˀ                        purposive aspect

Questions #2 How would you say…

  1. She is coming here. (feminine singular agent would take -w-)
  2. They (f) are coming here. (feminine plural agent -węnd-
  3. She is going there. (feminine singular agent would take -w-)They (f) are going there feminine plural agent -węnd-

With the progressive root aspect -(h)aky-

utemęhakyeˀ          She goes running away.

[oo-teh-men-han-kyeh-eh]

u-                     feminine singular patient ‘she’

-tem-           verb root ’to run away, flee‘     (a- conjugation)

-ę-                   stative aspect

-haky-          progressive root suffix

-eˀ                  purposive aspect

 

undatemęhakyeˀ     They (f) go running away.

[oon-dah-teh-man-ha-kyeh-eh]

unda-             feminine plural patient ‘they (f)’

-tem-             verb root ’to run away, flee‘

-ę-                   stative aspect

-haky-           progressive root suffix

-eˀ                  purposive aspect

hatiweyihakyeˀ       They (m) are going travelling together.

[hah-tee-weh-yee-hah-kyeh-eh]

hati-                 masculine plural agent ‘they (m)’

-wey-             verb root ‘to be together‘ (consonant conjugation)

-i-                     stative aspect

-haky-            progressive root suffix

-eˀ                purposive aspect

skwaweyihakyeˀ     You (p) are going travelling together.

[skwah-weh-yee-hah-kyeh-eh]

skwa-               second person plural agent ‘you (p)’

-wey-            verb root ‘to be together‘

-i-                     stative aspect

-haky-            progressive root suffix

-eˀ                   purposive aspect

Questions #3 – How would you say?

  1. He goes running away. (with hu- as masculine singular patient)
  2. They (m) go running away. (with hund- as masculine plural patient)
  3. They (f) are going travelling together (with ati- as feminine plural agent)
  4. We (exclusive) are going travelling together) (kwa- as 1st person exclusive plural agent)

Answers

#1

  1. hunyǫndeˀ
  2. hehšenyǫndeˀ
  3. atǫndeˀ
  4. hatǫndeˀ

#2

1. taweˀ

2. tawęnde

3. aweˀ

4. awęndeˀ

#3

  1. hutemęhakyeˀ
  2. hundatemęhakyeˀ
  3. atiweyihakyeˀ
  4. kwaweyihakyeˀ
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