The Semi-Reflexive in Wyandot

Semi-reflexive -ate- in Wyandot

The semi-reflexive voice occurs much more often than the reflective voice.  It tends to represent a situation in which something happens to the singular grammatical player involved, rather than that player or players actively doing it.

utehšaˀtih                       It has gone bad.

[oo-teh-shah-ah-teeh]

-u-                               feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-te-                              semi-reflexive voice

-hša-                            verb root ‘to be bad’

-ˀt-                               causative root suffix

-ih-                               stative aspect

aˀwaˀkǫhtęˀ                     It began.

[ah-ah-wah-ah-kon-ten-eh]

aˀw-                             factual + feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-aˀk-                            semi-reflexive voice

-ǫht-                            verb root ‘to begin’

-ęˀ                                punctual aspect

utežyaˀtǫˀ                       It is marked, written on.

[oo-teh-zhyah-ah-ton-on]

u-                                 feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-te-                              semi-reflexive[1] voice

-žyaˀtǫ-                       verb root, ‘to mark, write’

-ˀ                                   stative aspect

ehakyesahaˀ                     It will become easy for him.

[eh-hah-kyeh-sah-hah-ah]

e-                     future

-h-                   masculine singular agent ‘he’

-aky–               semi-reflexive voice

-esa-                verb root ‘to be easy’

-ha-                  inchoative root suffix (‘become’)

-ˀ                       punctual aspect

ahatǫngya                      He is made.  He is born[2].

[ah-hah-ton-gyah]

a-                     factual

-h-                   masculine singular agent ‘he’

-at-                  semi-reflexive voice

-ongy-              verb root ‘to make, build’

-ah                   punctual aspect

ąˀǫsęˀ                              They (ind) finished, died

[an-an-on-sen-en]

ąˀ-                                factual

-ǫ-                               indefinite agent ‘they’

            -s-                               semi-reflexive voice + verb root ‘to finish’

-ęˀ                                punctual aspect

It can also occur when grammatical players do something to themselves.

tawakyaˀtawakwaˀ            She bent her body this way.

[tah-wah-kyah-ah-tah-wah-kwah-ah]

t-                      dualic

-aw-                 factual + feminine-zoic singular agent ‘she’

aky-               semi-reflexive voice

-aˀt-                 noun root ‘body’

-a-                   noun suffix

-wakwa-          verb root ‘to bend’

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

ahatehšrǫgyaˀ               He prepared, dressed himself

[ah-hah-teh-shron-gyah-ah]

a-                     factual prefix

-h-                   masculine singular agent ‘he’

-ate-                semi-reflexive voice

-hšrǫgy-           verb root, ‘to prepare’

-aˀ                    punctual

hutenǫhšǫndiˀ                  He built his own house.

[hoo-ten-onh-shon-dee-ee]

hu-                   masculine singular patient ‘he’

-te-                  semi-reflexive voice

-nǫhš-              noun root, ‘house’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

hǫteˀndiyǫružahs             They (m) move their thoughts, play.

[hon-teh-en-dee-yon-roo-zhahs]

hǫ-                   masculine plural agent ‘they (m)’

-te-                  semi-reflexive voice

-ˀndiyǫr-          noun root ‘mind, thoughts’

-uža-                verb root ‘to move’

-hs                   habitual aspect

It also appears with plural grammatical players with very forms of grouping

hǫteyęˀąhą                       They (m) are siblings.

[hon-teh-yen-en-ahn-han]

hǫ-                   masculine plural agent ‘they (m)’

-te-                  semi-reflexive voice

-yę-                  verb root ‘to bend’

-ˀ-                    stative aspect

-ąha                 diminutive aspect suffix

ayukyehstih                   They (ind) are assembling.

[ah-yoo-kyeh-steeh]

ayu-                 indefinite patient ‘they’

-ky-                 semi-reflexive voice

-est-                 verb root ‘to assemble’

-ih                    stative aspect

aˀkǫkyaˀkyeraˀ                 They (ind) gathered together then, there.

[ah-ah-kon-kyah-ah-kyeh-rah-ah]

aˀ-                    factual

-k-                   cislocative

-ǫ-                   indefinite agent ‘they’

-ky-                 semi-reflexive voice

-aˀk-                 noun root ‘body’

-yera-               verb root ‘to gather’

-ˀ                      stative aspect

atǫkyerah     They (ind) are mixed together

[ah-ton-kyeh-rah]

a-                     factual

-t-                    dualic

-ǫ-                   indefinite agent ‘they (ind)’

-ky-                 semi-reflexive voice

-era-                verb root ‘to mix’

-h                     punctual aspect

[1] The initial -a- is dropped here as with every a- stem conjugation verb taking the feminine-zoic singular prefix.

[2] This is a Wyandot dialect form of the Wendat word Ahatonnia used in the title of the Huron Carol.

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