The stative aspect in Wyandot

Stative Aspect

The stative is probably the most commonly occurring of the aspects.  It refers, as the same suggests, to being in some kind of state.  It can also refer to a present perfect form .  It can take several forms, usually including either -ˀ- or –h-, often with an -i- before them.  It is more likely than the other aspects to take the patient form as the subject, but it still often has the agent as the subject (e.g., ‘I have spoken’).

yąndareˀ                She or it exists

[yan-dah-reh-eh]

ya-                   feminine-zoic agent ‘she or it’

-ndare-           verb root ‘to exist’

                      stative aspect

urehkwiˀ              There is shade.

[oo-reh-kwee-ee]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-rehkw-           verb root ‘to be shade’

-iˀ                     stative aspect

hutindramęh           They (m) are dancing.

[hoo-ten-drah-menh]

huti-                 masculine plural patient ‘they (m)’

-ndramę-         verb root ‘to dance’

-h                     stative aspect

iwayęh                  I have said

[ee-wah-yenh]

iw-                   partitive            ‘such’

-ay-                 1st person singular patient ‘I’

-ę-                   verb root ‘to have said’

-h                     stative aspect

Sometimes the stative aspect takes no form at all.  This typically occurs after a verb root that ends with -t- (not with a causative root suffix) or -k.

undarǫnt                It is attached to her cheek.

[oon-dah-ront]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular agent + feminine-zoic patient  ‘it to her’

-ndar-              noun root ‘cheek’

-ǫnt                  verb root ‘to attach’ + stative aspect

unǫht                    She has given it to her

[oon-nonht]

u-                     feminine-zoic singular agent + feminine-zoic patient ‘she to her’

-nǫht                verb root ‘to give’ + stative aspect

ǫdehk                    It is dirt, sand.

[on-dehk]

ǫ-                     feminine-zoic singular patient

-dehk               verb root ‘to be sand’   + stative aspect

It is the only aspect that can appear before other tenses, and the only one that can go before the external noun locative, the progressive root suffix and diminutive aspect suffix.

utemęhakyeˀ           She goes running away.

[oo-teh-men-ha-kyeh-eh]

u-                     feminine singular patient ‘she’

-tem-               verb root ’to run away, flee‘

-ę-                    stative aspect

-haky-              progressive root suffix

-eˀ                     purposive aspect

hunęntuˀndihakyeˀ            They (masculine) were growing.

[hoon-en-too-oon-dee-hah-kyeh-eh]

hun-                 masculine plural agent ‘they (m)’

-ęntu-               verb root ‘to grow’

-nd-                 inchoative root suffix

-i-                     stative aspect

-haky-              progressive root suffix

-eˀ                    purposive aspect

amęˀyeh                on the water

[ah-men-en-yeh]

am-                  feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ę-                   verb root ‘to be water’

-ˀ-                     stative aspect

-yeh                 external locative noun suffix

eskwakyesaˀskaˀ    It will have been easy.

[eh-skwah-kyeh-sah-ah-skah-ah]

e-                     future

-skw-               2nd person plural agent ‘you (p)’

-aky-                semi-reflexive voice

-esa-                verb root ‘to be easy’

-ˀ-                    stative aspect

-skaˀ                punctual aspect

Stative Aspect Plus Past Aspect Suffix

When the long ago past is being spoken about -nęh is added to the stative aspect.  This form of the past is not used with the other aspects.  They have their own

awerinęh              She had thought, was thinking.

[ah-weh-ree-nenh]

aw-                  feminine-zoic singular patient ‘she’

-er-                  verb root ‘to wish, think’

-i-                     stative aspect

-nęh                 past aspect suffix

kaęterinęˀ               (It was) when she knew.

[kah-en-teh-ree-nen-en]

k-                     cislocative

-a-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘she’

-ęter-              verb root ‘to know’

-i-                    stative aspect

-nęˀ                  past aspect suffix

 

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