Instrumental in Wyandot

The Instrumental  -kw-

 

The instrumental -kw- is a root suffix that generally refers to something being an instrument of doing something or a place.

 

d        aˀęndaˀ  ahutehšratǫnyǫkwaˀ     He menaced him many times with a bow

the       bow

 

aˀęndaˀ

[ah-ah-en-dah-ah]

 

ahutehšratǫnyǫkwaˀ        He menaced with it many times.

[ah-hoo-teh-shrah-ton-yon-kwah-ah]

a-                     factual

-hu-                  masculine singular patient ‘he’

-tehšratǫn-       verb root ‘to menace’

-yǫ-                  distributive root suffix ‘many times’

-kw-                instrumental root suffix

-aˀ                    punctual aspect

 

ehšrahkwat                     de      yaˀahšaˀ       You will put it inside a box.

the

 

ehšrahkwat           You will put it inside a place.

[eh-shrah-kwaht]

e-                     future

-hš-                  2nd person singular agent ‘you’

-ra-                   verb root ‘to be inside’

-kwa–              instrumental root suffix

-t                      punctual aspect

 

yaˀahšaˀ                 box

[yah-ah-shah-ah]

ya-                   feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-ˀahš-               noun root ‘box’

-aˀ                    noun suffix

 

 

 

 

 

 

daeˀ   atiˀ     ehšehstahkwaˀ                 d                 ehšetsikeˀtǫngyah

that      then     you will use it for such           that which       you will make sugar

 

Then you will use it to make sugar.

 

ehšehstahkwaˀ               You will use it for such.

[eh-seh-stah-kwah-ah]

e-                     future

-hše-                2nd person singular agent ‘you’

-hsta-               verb root ’to use’

-kwa-              instrumental root suffix

-ˀ                      punctual aspect

 

ehšetsikeˀtǫngyah           You will make sugar.

[eh-sheh-tsee-keh-eh-ton-gyah]

e-                     future

-hše-                2nd person singular agent ‘you’

-tsikeˀt-            noun root ‘sugar’

-ǫngy-              verb root ’to make’

-ah                   punctual aspect

 

šažahaˀtahkwih               de      yandaˀtsuwanęh

you boil it by means of it        the       it is a large pot

 

You will boil it by means of a large pot.

 

šažahaˀtahkwih                You will boil it by means of it.

[shah-zhah-ah-ah-tah-kweeh]

ša-                                2nd person singular agent ‘you’

-žaha-                          verb root ‘to boil’

-ˀt-                                causative root suffix

-ahkw–            instrumental root suffix

-ih                                stative aspect

 

yandaˀtsuwanęh              It is a large pot

[yahn-dah-ah-tsoo-wan-enh]

ya-                               feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-ndaˀts-                        noun root ‘pot’

-uwané-                       verb root ‘to be large’

-h                                 stative aspect

 

 

 

 

Instrumental as a Nominalizer

 

With three different verbs the instrumental can be a nominalizer, that is it can be added to a verb root to produce a noun stem.

 

eyarakuta                     The sun will stand, shine.

[eh-yah-rah-koo-tah]

e-                                 future

-ya-                              feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’

-ra-                               verb root ‘sun to rise’

-k-                               instrumental root suffix

-ut-                               verb root ‘to stand’

-a                                 punctual aspect

 

yękyukuwanęh                It is a large group.

[yen-kyoo-koo-wan-nenh]

yękyu-                         feminine-zoic singular agent ‘it’ + verb root ‘to be a lineage, clan’

-k-                               instrumental root suffix

-uwanę-                       verb root ‘to be large’

-h                                 stative aspect

 

kyuruhkwaharęht         It is a smoke hole, chimney.

[kyoo-rooh-kwah-hah-rent]

ky-                               cislocative ‘where’

-u-                                feminine-zoic singular patient ‘it’

-ru-                              verb root ‘to pierce’

-hkw-                          instrumental root suffix

-a-                                noun suffix

            -haręht-                        verb root ‘to be a hole’ + stative aspect

 

 

 

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